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Ixjngmans & Co., 39, Paternoster Row, E.C 

B. QuARiTCH, 15, Piccadilly; Dulau & Co., 37, Soho Square, W. 

Kegan Paul & Co., 43, Gerrard Street, W. 

and at the 

British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W. 


All rights reserved 


J '4\J^ (lriA,A>QJU-»-/ I r ». 



'npHE coloured drawings from which the plates in this book are 
reproduced have been prepared for exhibition in the North Hall 
of this Museum. 

Before devoting them, however, to the purpose for which they 
were primarily intended, it was thought that if published in a con- 
venient form their sphere of usefulness would be increased, while an 
opportunity would also be afforded for the inclusion of fuller notes on 
each species than can be given in a label. 

For exhibition purposes, and to facilitate the recognition and 
comparison of the different species, the drawings have been made on 
a greatly enlarged scale, to which it has not in all cases been possible 
to adhere in the reproductions ; but wherever practicable the copies 
are of the same size as the originals. 

Many of the species here illustrated have an extremely wide dis- 
tribution, so that the book may perhaps be of service to naturalists 
outside the British Islands ; while the illustrations, either as repre- 
senting species or simply as types of genera, will doubtless be useful 
to those engaged in the study of Blood-Sucking Flies in connection 
with disease. 


British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 

March 24///, 1906. 






Fig. I. Ceratopogon varius, Winn. 
Fig. 2. Ceratopogon puHcaris, Linn. 

Plate 2. 

Plate 3. 

Plate 4. 

Plate s. 

Plate 6. 

Plate 7. 

Plate 8. 

Plate 9. 


Gnats or Mosquitoes. 

Anopheles nigripes, Staeg. 

Anopheles bifurcatus, Linn. 

Anopheles maculipennis, Mg. (The Spotted 

Theobaldia annulata, Schrk. 

Culex cantans, Mg. 

Culex nemorosus, Mg. 

Culex pipiens, Linn. (The Common Gnat.) 

Grabhamia dorsalis, Mg. 

Plate 10. 

Simulium reptans, Linn. 



Plate II. Fig. I. H<nematopota pluvialis, Linn. Male. 
Plate II. Fig. 2. Haematopota pluvialis, Linn. Female. 

* Except where otherwise stated, the female alone is illustrated. The crossed lines on 
the plates indicate the natural size of the insects. 

Plate 12. 

Plate 13. 

Plate 14. 

Plate 15. 

Plate 16. 

Plate 17. 

Plate 18. 

Plate 19. 

Plate 20. 

Plate 21. 

Plate 22. 

Plate 23. 

Plate 24. 

Plate 25. 

Plate 26. 

Fig. I 

Plate 26. 

Fig. 2 

Plate 27. 

Plate 28. 

Plate 29. 

Plate 30. 



Plate 30. 

















Haematopota crassicomis, Whlbg. 

Therioplectes micans, Mg. 

Therioplectes montanus, Mg. 

Therioplectes luridus, Fin. 

Therioplectes tropicus, Pz. form bisignatus, 

Therioplectes solstitialis, Schin. 
Atylotus fulvus, Mg. 
Tabanus bovinus, Lw. 
Tabanus sudeticus, Zlr. 
Tabanus autumnalis^ Linn. Male. 
Tabanus autumnalis, Linn. Female. 
Tabanus bromius, Linn. 
Tabanus maculicornis, Ztt. 
Tabanus cordiger, Wied. 
Chrysops caecutiens, Linn. Male. 
Chrysops caecutiens, Linn. Female. 
Chrysops quadrata, Mg. 
Chrysops relicta, Mg. 


Stomoxys calcitrans, Linn. 
Haematobia stimulans, Mg. 
Lyperosia irritans, Linn. 


Hippobosca equina, Linn. (The Forest Fly.) 

Ornithomyia avicularia, Linn. 

Lipoptena cer\'i, Linn. Male. 

Lipoptena cer\'i, Linn. Female. 

Melophagus ovinus, Linn. (The Sheep " Tick.") 


THE British entomologist desirous of obtaining coloured illustra- 
tions of his country's insect fauna finds that, as regards the 
more popular Orders, such as the butterflies and moths, or the 
beetles, ample provision has been made for his wants. Should his 
predilections, however, incline towards Flies (Diptera), the case is 
altogether different. For, with the exception of the excellent 
coloured figures of certain British Diptera contained in Vol. VIII. of 
Curtis*s * British Entomology ' (many of which were published more 
than eighty years ago), and three plates of equally excellent coloured 
figures included in Miss Staveley's * British Insects * (London : 
L. Reeve and Co., 1871), no illustrations of British Flies in colour 
are obtainable. It is hoped that the plates in the present work, 
which faithfully depict the natural colours, and many of the external 
structural characters of some of the most interesting and important 
of British Diptera, may do something towards meeting the deficiency. 

Although under the social conditions of modern life Blood- 
Sucking Flies are less troublesome to human beings in the British 
Islands than in some other less highly civilised countries, many of 
the species illustrated in this book still often contrive to make their 
presence inconveniently felt, while others in country districts are 
regular tormentors of cattle and horses during the summer months. 
Within the last few years Blood-Sucking Flies have acquired a new 
importance, in view of modem discoveries as to the causation and 
dissemination of certain diseases of man and animals, and although 
no Blood-Sucking Fly is permanently associated with any disease in 
the British Islands at the present day, the British mosquitoes of the 
genus Anopheles remind us of the time, still comparatively recent, 
when ague was rife in England, while Stomoxys calcitrans recalls the 
Tsetse-flies of Tropical Africa, and the part played by them in 
sleeping sickness and nagana. 


In the following pages no attempt has been made to supply a 
detailed technical description of each species illustrated in the plates. 
In the case of the majority of the species, at any rate, it is believed 
that the plates will render such descriptions unnecessary, and, apart 
from this, the many demands upon the author's official time would 
have made their preparation impossible. The same reason, coupled 
with limitations of space, has also unfortunately necessitated the 
omission of a considerable amount of matter relating to the life- 
history of the species mentioned, but brief notes on life-history are 
included in the remarks upon each family. Since it was thought 
that British readers might be interested to learn in what other 
countries our native Blood-Sucking Flies are found, the geographical 
distribution of each species so far as it is known has in all cases been 
stated. References to original descriptions of genera and species, 
and discussions of synonymy, though necessarily included in a 
monograph, have here been omitted as out of place in a work which 
does not profess to be more than a popular account of the insects 
of which it treats. Since the primary object of this book is to 
facilitate by means of the plates the identification of Blood-Sncking 
Flies, the males that (probably with the exception of those of sf)ecies 
belonging to the Muscidae and Hippoboscidae) do not suck blood 
have not, as a rule, been illustrated. 

The original water-colour drawings of the species represented 
have been prepared by Mr. A. J. Engel Terzi with his usual care and 
exceptional skill, and a word of acknowledgment is also due to 
Mr. Harry F. Witherby (of Messrs. VVitherby and Co.), who has 
personally supervised their reproduction, and has been unremitting 
in his endeavours to produce thoroughly satisfactory copies of the 
artist's beautiful work. A special feature deserving of note in 
connection with the illustrations is the use o{ permanent paper for 
the plates, instead of the perishable coated paper generally employed 
for three-colour work. The change has greatly increased the 
difficulties of reproduction, but it is hoped that it will be appreciated 
by purchasers of the book. 

Field notes on many of the species illustrated and mentioned in 
the text have been kindly contributed by Lieut-Colonel J. W. 

Yerbury, an enthusiastic collector and student of Diptera, to whose 
generosity the Museum is largely indebted for its modern collection 
of British Flies. 


British Museum (Natural History), 
London, S.W. 

March 2\st, 1906. 



IN the shape of the common house-fly, or the blue-bottle, Flies 
are familiar to everyone, and a brief examination of either of 
these household pests will reveal two of the chief characteristics of 
the Order (Diptera) to which they belong, — the possession of but 
a single pair of wings, and, immediately behind these, the presence of 
a pair of little knobbed organs, the halteres or balancers, which 
represent the second pair of wings possessed by other insects. These 
two features, — the single pair of wings and the halteres, both of which 
can clearly be seen in the majority of the plates illustrating the 
present work, — serve to distinguish all ordinary Diptera from all other 
insects. The winged males of Coccidas (Scale-insects), which belong 
to the Order Rhynchota, though they have only one pair of wings, 
and might perhaps be mistaken for gall-midges (Diptera), are 
distinguished by the possession of a pair of long caudal filaments at 
the tip of the abdomen, and by being without halteres. In a small 
number of aberrant Diptera, as in the sheep " tick '* (Plate 34), the 
wings, or both wings and halteres, are entirely wanting, but in these 
cases the other details of the insect's external anatomy disclose its 
systematic position. Under the term " Flies " we include then, not 
only the horse-flies (Tabanidce) and many other families, the species 
of which more or less resemble the house-fly in shape, but also the 
midges and mosquitoes, which, though very dissimilar from the 
former in appearance, nevertheless possess all the essential structural 
characters of Diptera. 

Excluding the Fleas (Pulicidae), which it is better to regard as 
forming a separate Order of insects, 59 families are recognised in 
Verrairs 'List of British Diptera,* 2nd Edition, (Cambridge, 1901). 
Of these, if we leave out of the question the highly specialised and 


extremely aberrant Nycteribidae, which, doubtless, suck blood, but, 
being exclusively parasitic on bats, are of no practical importance, the 
blood-sucking habit is met with in only eight. Included in this total 
are the Psychodidae and Leptidae ; as regards the former, the blood- 
sucking genus Phlebot(nnus does not occur in Great Britain, and 
although blood has been noticed (by the Rev. A. E. Eaton) in the 
abdomen of a British specimen o( Sycorax silacea^ Hal., the insect has 
not yet been observed in the act of sucking blood, so that for our 
present purpose the Psychodidae may be left out of account. The 
same course may be taken in the case of the Leptidae, for no species 
of this family has yet been recorded as sucking blood in the British 
Islands, although in France the common British Leptis scolopacea, 
Linn, (as also Z. strigosa^ Mg. — a " reputed " British species) has been 
observed in the act of doing so on two or three occasions. The 
number of families of British Diptera that include blood-sucking 
species is therefore reduced to six, — the Chironomidae (midges), 
Culicidae (gnats or mosquitoes), Simulidae, Tabanidae (horse-flies), 
Muscidae, and Hippoboscidae. In two of these, the Chironomidae and 
Muscidae, the blood-sucking habit is exceptional and confined to a 
few species ; in the remainder, with the exception of a few small 
genera of Culicidae, the species of which do not suck blood, it is 
universal in the female sex, to which, with the exception of the 
Muscidae (and possibly of the Hippoboscidae), the habit is restricted. 
It should be noted that most, if not all, mosquitoes are also capable of 
subsisting upon the juices of plants. 

The number of species of blood-sucking flies that occur in the British 
Islands cannot be stated precisely, since the total of the blood-sucking 
species of midges (genus Cerat0p0gonySens,lat.)z.nA that of our indigenous 
species of Simulium is at present entirely uncertain. If, however, we 
count each of these groups as numbering a dozen species (certainly 
not an extravagant estimate), and include the two species of Nycteri- 
bidae, the number of British species of blood-sucking flies would 
amount to 74. The total number of species of Diptera recognised as 
British at the present time may be taken as between 2700 and 3000. 

With these introductory remarks we may proceed to a consideration 
of the species illustrated in the plates, which represent the principal 
British blood-sucking flies. 




Although these insects are by far the smallest of all blood-sucking 
flies, the pertinacity and blood-thirstiness of some species of midges is 
such that, in the British Islands at any rate, they cause much more 
discomfort and annoyance to human beings than the species of any 
other family mentioned in this book ; and, during the spring and 
summer months, in the evening hours when they are most active, their 
presence often constitutes a serious drawback to life in the country. 
Occasionally midges occur locally in such numbers as to amount to a 
veritable plague. With reference to a species, at present un- 
determined, which abounds in Scotland, Colonel Yerbury writes : 
" This insect is a great pest in the Highlands ; it collects in large 
numbers on one's knickerbocker stockings, and the bites cause the 
skin to look as if covered with a severe rash." It should be pointed out 
that the majority of the species of midges are perfectly harmless. The 
British blood-sucking forms belong to the genus Ceratopogon {sens, laL), 
which is distributed throughout the world, and of which we have some 
fifty indigenous species. Only a few of these, however, are known to 
suck blood, and the habit is confined to the female sex. As in the 
gnats or mosquitoes (Culicidae), the wings when at rest are carried flat, 
closed one over the other like the blades of a pair of scissors ; in 
many species (as in the two selected for illustration) they are minutely 
hairy, and they are often speckled with greyish brown blotches. The 
sexes can be distinguished owing to the possession by the males of 
tufted antennae and a more elongated shape. As a general rule the 
larvae of naked-winged species of Ceratopogon are aquatic, those of 
hairy-winged species terrestrial. The eggs of aquatic species are laid 
in floating algae, in star-shaped clusters containing from one hundred 
to one hundred and fifty. The larvae of these species are whitish 
worm-like creatures, with long narrow heads ; they live in the masses 
of Confervae floating on the surface of stagnant pools and ditches, and 
progress with a serpentine motion. The larvae of the hairy-winged 


species live under the damp bark of dead trees, in weeping spots on 
tree trunks, and in decaying vegetable matter generally, such as 
manure, rotting fungi, &c. These terrestrial larvae are usually shorter 
than the aquatic ones, and do not move in serpentine fashion. 

The precise number of species of British blood-sucking midges has 
yet to be determined ; the two figured on Plate i are among the most 


Ceratopogon YariuSi Winn. 

Plate I, fig. I. 

This exceedingly minute fly, the female of which measures only 
i^ mm. in length, is, within the personal experience of the writer, a 
vigorous blood-sucker, and, when it is engaged in operations on the 
back of one's hand, its tiny abdomen can be seen increasing in size 
and turning pink as the blood is pumped into it. Blood-sucking 
midges are seldom collected, and the Museum series of this species 
is insufficient to throw much light on its seasonal or local occurrence 
in the British Islands ; but there are specimens from Newmarket 
Cambridgeshire, May Sth ; and Frant, Sussex, June i6th, 1886 
{G. H. Verrall)\ and from Kingsbury, Middlesex, June 14th, 1891 
{E. E, Austen). 

The geographical range of this species includes Northern and 
Central Europe. 

* Some few years ago Latreille's ^enus CuHcndis was revived by Kieffer (Bull, de la 
Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Melz, 2iitnje Cahier (Metz : 1901.), p. 143) for the group of species 
which includes Ceratopogon varius^ Winn., & C. puIicaHs, Linn. The author in question 
also introduced three other genera at the expense of the old genus Ceratopogon^ which, 
owing to the large number of species comprised in it, was in urgent need of division. For 
the purposes of the present work, however, it has l)oen thought unnecessary to change the 
nomenclature adopted in Wrrall's * List,' 2nd Ed. (1901). 


Ceratopogon pulioaris, Linn. 

Plate I, fig. 2, 

In certain localities in England in the latter part of April and 
beginning of May, 1964, this midge was especially abundant, and 
much inconvenience was caused by its bites. A correspondent 
writing from Romford, Essex, on April 28th, with reference to the 
multitudes of Ceratopogon pulicaris with which the town was then 
afflicted, said : — " They swarm in countless myriads, and their bite is 
very virulent, to me worse than a bee-sting, or the bite of any gnat. 
I have never seen them before in anything like the quantities, neither 
have I known the effects to be so severe and lasting. No doubt the 
hot sun and damp soil have brought them out, as in the tundras." 
Writing again on May ist, the same correspondent said: — "The 
insects were in such large numbers that by just turning a killing- 
bottle through the air I soon got a pill box full. Many of my 

Ceratopogon pulicaris ^ Linn. (9), in resting position (x 12). 

neighbours had lumps on their necks, and their faces like measles, 
while some of the workmen * struck.' " In many other localities near 
London, such as Epping Forest, Harrow, and the suburb of Stoke 
Newington, this pest was also very prevalent at the same time, and in 


consequence of their attacks, people found it impossible to remain in 
gardens after 5 p.m. 

Ceratopogon pulicaris measures 2 mm. in length, and is therefore 
considerably larger than C, varius\ it abounds throughout Europe, 
and can easily be recognised by the marking of the wings, which 
when closed appear to have transverse bands. 


The Harvest Bug (Lepius aututnnalis, Shaw), x loa (After M^gnin.) 

The irritating swellings caused by Har\'est Bugs are* occasionally mistaken for the bites 
of midges or gnats. The Harvest ** Bug " {Leftus autumnaHs^ Shaw) is really a Mite, a 
minute Acarus,— the six-legged larva of a species of Trombidium ; it is possible that lar\*a; 
belonging to more than one species are included under the same name. The annoyance is 
caused by these young forms hurrawing into the skin, generally about the ankles and knees. 
Midges and gnats more usually attack the exposed parts of the body, although the females of 
both families readily bite through thin clothing. 




Gnats or Mosquitoes. 

In view of the large amount of popular misconception that 
appears still to exist with reference to the meaning of the terms 
" gnat *' and " mosquito," it may be worth while once again to 
emphasise the fact that, properly used, they apply to any species of 
the family Culicidae, so that, if we prefer to employ a word of foreign 
origin rather than the Old English gfiat^ our British species of 
Anopheles y Culex^ etc., are as much entitled to be called mosquitoes as 
are tropical species belonging to the same genera, from many of 
which they would be indistinguishable to the untrained observer. 

Including certain non-blood-sucking forms belonging to the genera 
Corethray MochlonyXy and Aedes, the species of mosquitoes now 
recognised as British are twenty-two in number. Many harmless 
midges belonging to the genera Ckironomus and Tanypus resemble 
gnats more or less closely in outward appearance, but, apart from 
other structural characters, may be distinguished by the absence 
of the long, piercing proboscis, as also by the habit of holding 
up the front legs when at rest, whereas a gnat in the same position 
elevates its hind legs. In British, as in all mosquitoes with possibly 
one or two exceptions, the blood-sucking habit is confined to the 
female sex. The males may be distinguished by their plumed 
antennae, and in the genera Tluobaldia, Cnlex, and Grabhamia by 
their elongate palpi. In Anopheles the palpi are as long as the 
proboscis in both sexes, but in the male their tips are thickened, bent 
outwards, and somewhat plumose. 

The preliminary stages of all mosquitoes are passed in water. 
The wriggling larvae and comma-shaped pupae of the common gnat 
{Culex pipiensy Linn. — Plate 8), which are familiar objects in cisterns 
and rain-water butts in summer, may be taken as types of those of 
the species belonging to the genera Tluobaldia^ Culex^ and Grabhamia, 
In the case of the latter genus the eggs are usually laid singly. The 
eggs of the species belonging to the two former genera somewhat 


resemble tiny " Indian clubs " in shape, and are deposited on the sur- 
face of the water, arranged vertically in compact masses, or " rafts," 
each containing from 200 to 300 eggs. The ^gs of the species of 
Anopheles y on the other hand, are boat-shaped, and are not attached to 
one another, but float freely on the surface of the water in clusters of 
from two or three to as many as 100. The larvae of the Culicinae are 
distinguished by the possession of a posterior dorsal breathing tube, 
or respiratory siphon, which is absent in the Anophelinae. When 
taking in air, the former suspend themselves at an angle from the 
surface film by the extremity of the respiratory siphon, but the 
larvae of the latter lie perfectly horizontal. The food of mosquito 
larvae consists of algae and minute organisms, both animal and 
vegetable ; in captivity they sometimes display cannibal propensities. 
In addition to the species illustrated in the plates, the following 
blood-sucking mosquitoes are also found in the British Islands: — 
Ctdex morsitanSy Theob., lateralis^ Mg., otnatus^ Mg., diversus^ 
Theob., nigripes^ Ztt. var. sylva^ Theob., nigritulus^ Ztt., Itttescens^ 
Fabr. ; Grabhamia pulchripalpis, Rond. ; and Tceniorhynchus 
richardii^ Fie. 


Anopheles nigripes, Staeg. 
Plate 2. 

Specimens of this species in the Museum collection are from 
various localities between and including Colwyn Bay, Carnarvonshire, 
N. Wales, and Penzance, Cornwall : the species is on the wing from 
June to September. According to Theobald (* Monograph of the 
Culicidae,' Vol. I., p. 202) it also occurs in Scotland, and what appears 
to be A, nigripes was recorded (without a specific name) from the North 
of Ireland by A. H. Haliday in 1828 (* Zool Journal,' III., 1828, p. 501), 
Theobald {loc. cit.) writes of this species : — " It bites very viciously, 


and the bite is somewhat annoying. It usually occurs on the wing at 

dusk I have taken this mosquito in the daytime by beating dense 

bushes where it seems to pass the day in North Wales." The same 
writer states that A, nigripes "does not appear to come indoors," but 
the Museum possesses a female which bit and sucked blood, and was 
taken by Mr. F. VV. Terry at Merton, Surrey, on June 6th, 1899, '^^ ^ 
bedroom at night. According to Nuttall, Cobbett, and Strangeways- 
P>gg ('The Journal of Hygiene,* Vol. I., 1901, p. 12), in the British 
Islands Anopheles nigripes is much more rare than either of the 
other two species of the genus, although there is no difference in 
the distribution of any of them. Out of 1 56 British specimens of 
Anopheles from various localities, no fewer than 123 were Spotted 
Gnats (^4. maculipennis, — Plate 4), 27 belonged to A. bifurcatus 
(Plate 3), and only six to the present species. 

The geographical range of A. nigripes is said to include Northern 
Europe and North America, 

Anopheles biftircatus, Linn. 

Plate 3. 

This species, which occurs throughout Europe,from Lapland to Italy 
and the Mediterranean, is probably generally distributed in the British 
Islands, since it was recorded by Haliday from the north of Ireland, 
and the localities of the specimens in the Museum include Torphins, 
Aberdeenshire, N.B., and Penzance, Cornwall According to Theobald 
{pp. city p. 198) this mosquito makes its appearance in England in 
April and May; a male and female were taken at Penzance by 
Mr. F. W. Terry on July 17th, 1901. Theobald writes that the 
female of A. bifurcatus attacks human beings, and is a very persistent 
blood-sucker ; " it is much fiercer than the more common A, maculi- 
pennis" or Spotted Gnat (Plate 4). The same author adds that he 
has found the species chiefly in the neighbourhood of woods, and that 
malarial parasites are known to develop in it in Italy. 


Anopheles maciilipeimis, Mg. 

The Spotted Gnat 

Plate 4. 

Like the foregoing species, this is one of the mosquitoes chiefly 
concerned in the dissemination of malaria in Italy at the present day. 
It is widely distributed in Great Britain, and is very common in many 
places. In Ireland it was recorded by Haliday in 1827 (*Zool. 
Journal/ Vol. III. (1828), p. 501) as occurring "in profusion, in the 
neighbourhood of Belfast, throughout the summer and autumn." In 
England, according to Theobald {pp, cit. p. 193), the time of appear- 
ance of this species is ** from March to May, and again from June to 
December." The same writer adds that : — " The majority appear in 
July and August. Females only occur early in the year." He also 
states that specimens " may be found in the daytime settled inside 
outhouses and privies." British females of A. maculipennis would 
appear sometimes to be less blood-thirsty than those of either of the 
foregoing species, and Theobald's experience has been that both 
sexes subsist entirely on vegetable food. If this is the case it would 
suggest that a change must have taken place in the feeding-habits of 
British females of this species, since the time when ague (malaria) 
was prevalent in this country. Nevertheless there can be no doubt 
that on occasion females of A, maculipennis in the British Islands 
suck blood at the present time. Thus, in their paper on * The Geo- 
graphical Distribution of Anopheles in Relation to the Former Dis- 
tribution of Ague in England,* published in January, I90i,it is stated 
by Nuttall, Cobbett, and Strangeways-Pigg (Joe, a/., p. 10) on the basis 
of investigations made in the previous year : — " That the English 
Anopheles maculipennis is just as fond of blood as its continental con- 
frkres has been amply proved by experiment during July and 
August." Again, a correspondent who wrote from Langport, Somerset, 
on August 1 6th, 1905, and forwarded for identification specimens of 
this species and Tluobaldia dnnulata, Schrk. (Plate 5), complained 
that : — '' Since residing in Langport, which is on the level of Sedge- 


moor, we have been troubled every summer with the enclosed gnats, 
which, coming into the bedrooms, assail the sleepers to such an extent 
that we have to adopt mosquito curtains." 

Anopheles ntactUipennis, which occurs throughout Europe and has 
been met with in Palestine, is also widely distributed in Canada and 
the United States. 

Before bringing to a close these brief notes on the British represen- 
tatives of the malaria-bearing genus AnopheleSy it may be interesting 
to reproduce the following " Conclusions " from the paper by Messrs. 
Nuttall, Cobbett, and Strangeways-Pigg already referred to {loc. 
ciL pp. 43-44). 

" I. The disappearance of ague from Great Britain does not 
depend upon the extinction of mosquitoes capable of 
harbouring the parasites of malaria. 

" 2. Three species of Anopheles {A. maculipennis.A. bifurcaiuSy 
A. nigripes) are to be found in Great Britain in all districts 
which were formerly malarious, but also in places con- 
cerning which there is no record of the former prevalence 
of ague. 

" 3. The Anopfules to-day are most numerous in low-lying land 
containing many ditches, ponds, and slowly-flowing water, 
suitable for their habitat, and corresponding to the dis- 
tricts where ague was formerly prevalent 

" 4. Since the disappearance of ague does not depend upon 
the extinction of Anopheles it is probably due to several 
causes operating together : 

" {d) A reduction in the number of these insects conse- 
quent upon drainage of the land, this being in accord 
with all the older authors, who attributed the disappearance 
of ague largely to this cause. 

" {fi) Reduction of the population in infected districts 
as the result of emigration about the time when ague dis- 


appeared from England. This would naturally reduce the 
number of infected individuals and thus lessen the chance 
of the Anopheles becoming infected. 

" (r) It is possible that the use of quinine has reduced 
the chances of infecting the Anopheles through checking 
the development of the parasites in the blood of subjects 
affected with ague. 

" Of these, the first-mentioned cause seems to have been chiefly 

" 6. Since the geographical distribution of Anopheles in England 
is wider than the former distribution of ague in this 
country, we are forced to conclude that it is not a matter 
of the geographical distribution of Anopheles as much as 
of their numerical distribuiion, 

" 7. Our observations having proved the existence of Anopheles 
in non-malarious districts, we believe that they will explain 
the occasional occurrence of ague in out-of-the-way 
places, without making it necessary to assume that 
malaria-bearing mosquitoes have been freshly-imported, 
for, given suitable conditions of temperature and the 
requisite number of Anopheles ^2, malarious subject coming 
from other parts might well infect the local insects, which 
in turn would spread the infection to healthy persons. 


THEOBALDIA, Neveu-Lemaire. 

Theobaldia anniilata, Schrk. 

{Culex annulatus, Verrall, * List of British Diptera,* 2nd Ed. 

(1901), p. 12.) 

Plate 5. 

This species is one of the largest of mosquitoes, is common in Great 
Britain, and may be met with either out of doors or in outbuildings and 
houses at all seasons of the year. The localities of the British speci- 
mens in the Museum range from Torphins, Aberdeenshire, N.B., to 
Penzance, Cornwall, and the dates of their capture include February 
25 and December 25. The species is occasionally taken in the 
British Museum (Natural History), where it doubtless breeds in the 
water cisterns. Theobald writes {op. city Vol. III. 1903), pp. 148- 
149 : — " There is no doubt that this large mosquito hibernates in sheds, 
cellars, etc., during the winter. They are mainly noticed indoors in 
Kent in October, and now and then in the first week of November, 
but during the past year they were active both indoors and out right 
through the winter." 

Theobaldia annulata bites very severely, and the puncture inflicted 
by it is often followed by local swelling and inflammation, as well as 
sometimes by constitutional disturbance. The varying effects of the 
bite in different individuals have been described by Dr. W. Hatchett 
Jackson (quoted by Theobald, loc. cif., pp. 149-150), who, writing of an 
invasion of the town of Weston-super-Mare, Somersetshire, by this 
gnat in the autumn of 1902, says that " few persons in Weston and its 
neighbourhood " have escaped its attacks. As is the case, however, 
with all other mosquitoes, T. annulata is also able to subsist upon 
a v^etable diet, for the same writer observes : — " I saw no males after 
the second week in November, 1902, and at that time I noticed on a 
sunny day, in a warm nook of our garden, numbers of this gnat — all 


females — flying about and settling on the stems of plants and inserting 
their proboscides, apparently engaged in sucking. The two plants 
attacked were the periwinkle (V. major) and young wallflowers." 
Dr. Hatchett Jackson adds : — " Most people at Weston are well 
acquainted with this species owing to its speckled wings, and it is 
usually to be met with in autumn in the woods on Worlebury Hill 
behind Weston on the north. Indeed it is sometimes spoken of as 
the * Wood Gnat.' " In November, I904» reports and specimens 
received from Leamington, Warwickshire, and Sleaford, Lincolnshire, 
showed that this species was again troublesome in different parts of the 

The geographical ran^e of T. annulafa is very wide, for, besides 
being distributed throughout Europe, the insect also occurs in the 
Punjab, India, while in America it is found from Canada to Mexico. 


CULEX, Linnaius. 

Colex cantans, Mg. 

Plate 6. 

In the British Islands this gnat is apparently less common than 
some other species, and the only British specimens at present 
contained in the Museum collection are from Merton Hall, Thetford, 
Norfolk, June loth, 1900 {Lord Walsingkam) ; Cambridge (/^ V. 
Tluobald) ; Ledbury, Herefordshire, June 2nd, 1895 {LieuL-Colonel 
Yerbury)\ Ashford, Kent, August 12th, 1902 {W.R. Jeffreys)] and 
Brockenhurst, New Forest, Hants, May 5th to 19th, 1904, and 6th to 
12th, 1905 (C. O. IVaterkouse). Theobald writes {op, ciL, Vol. III. 
(I903)>P- 179) '—'' C. cantans is a sylvan species, which Mr. W. R. 
Jeffreys, of Ashford, assures me is vicious in the woods in the Weald 
of Kent. It bites at dusk, especially choosing the ankles." 

This species occurs throughout Europe, and is also found in 
India and Canada. 


Culex nemorosus, Mg. 

Plate 7. 

This is another sylvan species, which, according to Theobald 
{pp. city Vol. II. (1901), p. 83), is common in England but has never 
been known to enter houses or outbuildings. The author referred to 
states that he has received specimens from " a great variety of places 
such as deep woods, the borders of lakes, along ditches, cuttings, etc." 
The British specimens in the Museum collection are from various 
localities between and including Torphins, Aberdeenshire, N.B., and 
the New Forest, Hants ; the species was met with by the writer in the 
woods near Brinklow, Warwickshire, on June 30th, 1902. The time 
of flight is from May to August. Theobald writes {Joe, cit,^ p. 84) : — 
" This wood gnat varies very considerably both in size and colour. I 
have seen the females only 6 mm. long, whilst others are 9 mm." 

The geographical range of C, netnorosus includes the whole of 
Europe, from Lapland to Italy, and also extends to Canada. 

Culex pipiens, Linn. 

The Common Gnat 

Plate 8. 

The Common Gnat is generally distributed in the British Islands, 
and may be met with in houses practically throughout the year. 
Theobald writes {op. ciL, Vol. II. (1901), p. 135): — "The females 
hibernate in cellars and outhouses, and appear mostly in March and 
April, but do not, as far as my observations go, deposit their eggs for 
some little time. No males are to be found in the early part of the 
year, the females having been fertilised by the males in the previous 
autumn. I have known this gnat active in numbers well into 
November in England, and they occur during the winter in houses." 


During winter and early spring, Common Gnats are often to be found 
in swarms on the roofs of cellars, where their presence at that season of 
the year sometimes occasions a good deal of surprise. This species 
is often a troublesome blood-sucker, and, as most people know to their 
cost, even a solitary Gnat is capable of causing considerable 
annoyance in a bedroom at night As regards his experience of the 
Common Gnat in Scotland, Colonel Yerbury says : — " This is another 
early pest, which was in numbers at Nairn and Brodie in the middle 
of May, 1905 ; eight or ten specimens could be seen at one time 
sitting on one*s knickerbocker stockings." 

Culex pipiens occurs throughout Continental Europe, and also in 
Malta, Algeria, Madeira, Teneriffe, and North America. 

GRABHAMIA, Theobald. 

Grabhamia doraalis, Mg. 

{Culex dorsaliSy Verrall, * List of British Diptera,' 2nd Ed. 
(1901), p. 12.) 

Plate 9. 

This species, which is quite the most handsome of our British 
mosquitoes, may easily be recogfnised by its bright tawny thorax 
marked with two longitudinal stripes of cream-coloured scales which 
meet behind, and by the striking pattern of the abdominal markings, 
which are clearly shown in the plate. G. dorsalis makes its appear- 
ance in August and September, when it is often locally abundant in 
some of the suburbs of London. At present it is impossible to say 
anything as to the distribution of this species in the British islands, 
since all the British localities whence it has hitherto been recorded 
are in England, for the most part in the southern counties. 
Theobald, however {op, cit., Vol. II. (1901), p. 18), mentions its 
occurrence in Wyre Forest, Worcestershire (where it was taken by 


Mr. G. C. Bradley), and states that he himself, has "found it in 
numbers in a garden at Rochester, where it caused much annoyance " ; 
he also {pp. city Vol. III. (1903), p. 251) says that it occurs on "the 
banks of the Thames on the Essex side." In September, 1899, 
this mosquito was very abundant and troublesome at Camberwell, 
London, S.E., where its bites were stated to cause inflammation, 
swelling, and abscesses ; and at the same period the species was also 
attracting attention in other London suburbs, such as Lewisham and 
Stamford Hill (N.). 

With reference to its abundance at Aldeburgh, Suffolk, in August, 
1895, Mr. Albert Piffard writes (* Entomologist's Monthly Magazine/ 
Series 2, VoL VI. (1895), P« ^^^7^'- — ^"One of the peculiarities 
of this pretty seaside town, which never fails to engage the attention 
of summer visitors, is the presence in vast numbers of a small 
species of gnat, which is always busy indoors and out of doors, 
in shade and even in bright sunshine, in inflicting a bite which 
has such a virulent effect on those unacclimatized, that but 
few hours elapse before each new arrival has the 'mark 
of the beast' set on him. The species is known by the 
inhabitants as the * Norway Mosquito,' and I ascertained on enquiry 
that it had been abundant for at any rate the last twenty-five years. 
A tradition generally accepted here assigns its introduction to a 
particular yacht which used to ply between this port and Norway." 
Theobald says {pp. ciLy Vol. II. (1901), p. 18) with reference to this 
species : — " The bite is very severe and the insect most ravenous in 
warm weather, biting both by night and day." 

Outside the British Islands G, dorsalis is known to occur in 
Scandinavia, Denmark, Holland, Germany, and Austria. 



Although undistinguished in the British Islands by any English 
name, the members of this family, of which it is probable that our 
fauna includes at least a dozen species, are only too well-known to 
all those who have had occasion to enter their haunts. The family 
consists of the single genus Simulinm^ which is universally dis- 
tributed, and of which some sixty-six species, difficult to distinguish 
from one another, have been described up to the present time. The 
females of some of these flies, which are among the most dreaded 
of all blood-sucking Diptera, sometimes occur in enormous swarms, 
and by their attacks upon horses, mules, and cattle, especially in 
certain parts of the United States, occasion great losses among these 
animals, besides molesting human beings. In the district of South 
Hungary called the Banat the Columbacz Midge {Simtdium colitm- 
baczense^ Schonb.) has been notorious for more than a hundred years 
owing to the destruction caused by it among cattle. 

In appearance Simulidae are small black or greyish flies, not 
exceeding 4 mm. in length, with a conspicuously humped thorax, 
short straight antennae, broad and delicate iridescent wings, stout 
l^s, and a short proboscis which is not visible from above. The 
males, which are incapable of sucking blood, are fond of dancing in 
the air in the sun ; as a rule they are much darker in coloration than 
the females, and are often velvety black, with silvery markings on 
the front of the thorax. 

The preliminary stages are passed in running water. The eggs 
are deposited in a compact layer or gelatinous mass on stones or 
plants close to the water's edge. The larval stage lasts for about 
four weeks in the summer, though longer in cold weather, and the 
winter is passed in this stage. In shape the larva is somewhat like 
a tiny leech, broadening out posteriorly, where it is attached by 
means of a sucker to a stone, the stem of a water-plant, a dead leaf, 
or other object. The larva is able to shift its position by crawling in 
a looping fashion, but usually remains in a more or less erect position. 


It feeds on algae, diatoms, and parts of phanerogamous plants, which 
are brought to the mouth by means of the currents set up by two 
broad fan-like organs situated upon the head. In colour the larva 
varies according to the species, and perhaps also to some extent in 
accordance with its food, from deep shining black to yellow or dark 
green. When mature, the larva spins a silken cocoon within which 
it pupates, and in which the pupa remains motionless, breathing by 
means of a pair of branched respiratory filaments, which project 
from behind the head. The pupal stage lasts for about a week, and 
the perfect insect, making its escape through a rent in the back of 
the thorax, ascends to the surface in a bubble of air, and makes its 
way to the stem of a rush or some similar support on which it rests 
until its tissues are sufficiently hardened to enable it to fly. 

SIMULIUM, Latreille. 

Simulium reptans, Linn. 
Plate lo. 

So far as present experience goes, this would appear to be 
essentially a northern species, since all the British specimens of it 
in the Museum collection come from beyond the Tweed. A very 
similar species, which is common in the midland and southern 
counties of England, is distinguished from S, reptans by the middle 
tibiae of the male being wholly brown, or, at any rate, not con- 
spicuously silvery-yellow at the base, and by the hind tarsi in the 
female being less clear yellow on the basal two-thirds. Well- 
preserved females of 5. reptans show on the anterior half of the 
thorax a whitish-grey blotch on each side above the anterior angles, 
which unfortunately does not appear in the plate ; besides this, the 
thorax is clothed with a closely-fitting coat of minute golden hairs, 
the tibiae, with the exception of the tips, are in reality conspicuously 


silvery-yellow, and the basal joint of the front tarsus is broader than 
it appears in the illustration. 

The localities and dates of the Museum specimens areas follows: — 
Kinlochewe, Ross-shire, N.B., May 23rd, 1892 ( W. R. Ogilvie Grant) ; 
Nairn, N.B., May 20th to June 4th, 1905 {LieuL-Colonel Ytrbury) \ 
Brodie, Elgin, N.B., May 30th, 1905 {Lieut-Colonel Yerbury) ; Nethy 
Bridge and Spey Bridge, Inverness-shire, N.B., June 14th to July 7th, 
1905 {Lieut,* Colonel Yerbury), According to Colonel Yerbury, 
5. reptans " occurs in countless numbers in the Abernethy Forest in 
June and July, and causes great annoyance. A sweep or two with 
the butterfly net round one's head results in a perfect holocaust of 
victims." Of 5. hirtipes^ Fries, — a dark-legged species, — Colonel 
Yerbury writes that it is " the earliest of the biting pests in Scotland. 
It was found in numbers at Dunkeld so early as the 8th May." 




(Horse-flies, or Breeze-flies, Dun-flies, Clegs and Stouts, frequently 
called Gad-flies ; in Kent the species of Hcematopota are locally known 

as Brintps.^) 

In the British Islands, as elsewhere, the horse flies, owing to the 
size of many of the species, are the most formidable in appearance of all 
the blood-sucking Diptera. Indeed a large female of Tabanus sudeticus^ 
TL\x, (Plate 20), measuring nearly an inch in length, with a wing 
expanse of over an inch and three-quarters, is exceeded in size by 
but very few exotic species of this family, and frequently excites the 
surprise of those who are not entomologists, when they learn that it 
IS really a British insect The horse-flies, which are world-wide in 
their distribution, are also among the largest of all families of Diptera, 
the total number of species described at the end of the year 1904 
being no less than 1,560. In the British Islands there are twenty-two 
recognised species belonging to the genera Hamatopota^ TheriopUcteSy 
Atylotus^ Tabanus and Chrysops. Of Pangonia (which, as regards 
number of species, is the second of the principal genera of this family, 
and is remarkable for the length of the proboscis, which, in some 
species, greatly exceeds that of the body) there is no British 

In appearance the Tabanidai are bulky-bodied flies, with a large 
head, which is convex in front and concave or flattened behind. In 
the male the head is almost wholly composed of the eyes, which meet 
together above in that sex but are separated in the female. The males 
have an area in the upper portion of the ^yts^ varying in extent 
according to the species, composed of larger facets than those below. 
In life the eyes usually exhibit golden green or purple markings, which 
are of value for the identification of species, and are especially brilliant 
in the case of the females of Chrysops and Hcematopota, which, as pointed 

* Aptui F. V. Theobald, < Second Report on Economic Zoology ' (British Museum 
(Natural History). London, 1904), p. 15. 


out by Girschiier (* Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift/ Bd. xxxi. 
(1887), p. 156) " possess probably the finest eyes of all insects." After 
death, however, the colour of the eyes rapidly changes to a dull brown 
or brownish-black, until scarcely a trace of the markings remains.* 

In front of the eyes project conspicuously the three-jointed 
antennae, and below the head in all the British forms depends vertically 
the fleshy proboscis, or lower lip, which encloses the piercing mouth 
parts. The palpi, which lie one on each side of the proboscis, are 
swollen and fleshy, and differ in shape in the two sexes. The body 
is clothed with short hair and totally devoid of the large bristles 
known as macrochaetze. 

In the coloration as in the shape of the body horse-flies throughout 
the world show remarkably little variation, and the British species are 
consequently very similar in appearance to many of those belonging 
to the same genera found in Central Africa, India and elsewhere. 
Some shade of brown or black is the most frequent hue, though the 
abdomen is often lighter or exhibits lighter markings. The wings, 
which, when the insect is at rest, diverge at the tips or are some- 
what tectiform (sloping like the roof of a house), have in the case of 
Hcematopota and Chrysops characteristic markings, which are well 
shown in the plates. 

Horse-flies may be met with throughout the summer in fields, open 
spaces in woods, or by country roadsides. The edges of woods are 
favourite haunts of certain species, and when resting in such a place 
on a hot day one may frequently notice a Hcematopota or two or a 
specimen of one of the smaller species of 7ii^^«i/.f crawling with much 
deliberation over one's coat and making preliminary investigations with 
its proboscis. The females alone suck blood ; the males of certain 
species may occasionally be met with on flowers or sometimes hovering 
in the air. The species of Hcematopota and Chrysops, and the smaller 
species of Tabanus are remarkable for the quietness with which they 
alight on their victims, the sharp prick of the bite being often the 
first intimation of the presence of the fly. The larger species of 
Tabanus betray their approach by their deep hum. When once the 
operation of sucking blood has commenced, horse-flies, like other 

* In the plates to this work the eyes are shown as seen in dried specimens, from which 

the drawings had perforce to be prepared ; but to far as possible the natural colour and 

marking are indicated in the notes on each species. 


blood-sucking Diptera, may easily be captured or killed. Owing to 
the size of the. Tabanidae, the wound inflicted by the mouth-parts of 
many of the species is especially severe. Anyone who has seen 
Tabanus bavinus (Plate 19) attacking horses must have noticed the 
large drops of blood that exude and trickle from the spots bitten by 
the flies. Among domestic animals, however, horses and cattle are 
not the only victims, for in other countries mules, camels, and 
elephants suffer severely. Wild animals are similarly tormented ; 
thus in * The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia* (London: Macmillan 
& Co., 1867), p. 210, the late Sir Samuel Baker, writing of the country 
between the Settiteand the Atbara Rivers, mentions herds of game as 
retreating from the south before the attacks of the " Seroot," under 
which name several species of Tabanus and Pangonia are known to 
Europeans on the Blue and White Niles. As regards the attacks of 
horse-flies upon human beings, abundant though certain species such 
as those of Hcematopota occasionally are in the British Islands, we 
have to turn to continental records in order to understand how serious 
a pest these flies may become owing to their extraordinary blood- 
thirstiness. Thus, according to Portschinsky (*Pie Bremsen (Tabanidae) 
und die einfachste Methode dieselben auszurotten.* [In Russian.] Pub- 
lished by the Ministry of Agriculture and State Domains : St. Peters- 
burg, 1899, pp. 19.— Summary in German by N. Von Adelung, *Zoolo- 
gisches Centralblatt,' VII. Jahrg. (19CX)), pp. 807-808), in the Gdov 
District of the St. Petersburg Government, in Russia, horse-flies in 
summer are so excessively numerous and bloodthirsty that agricultural 
operations have to be carried out by night ; while in parts of Siberia, such 
as the shores of the River Om, settlers have been compelled entirely to 
abandon the zone infested by these flies. Noticing that horse-flies 
frequently seek pools in order to drink, Portschinsky hit upon the expe- 
dient of covering with a thin layer of petroleum the surface of the water 
in certain lakes and pools in districts infested by the flies. The result 
was a brilliant success, and the insects were destroyed in enormous 
numbers, the majority on attempting to drink adhering to the layer 
of oil, while others although they managed to fly away, were 
subsequently choked or poisoned by the petroleum. In this way 
certain localities, such as the Park of Pawlowsk near St. Petersburg, 
were completely cleared of these troublesome Diptera. It is interesting 



to note that no specimens of Hcematopota came to drink at the pools, 
so that the species of this genus cannot be destroyed by the method 
indicated. A layer of petroleum on the surface of the water is fatal 
to aquatic horse-fly larvae, just as it is to those of mosquitoes. 

Tabanidae deposit their spindle-shaped brown or black ^gs closely 
packed in rounded or flattened masses, which are attached to the 
leaves and stems of rushes or " other smooth surfaces over water or 
wet ground " (Hart). The larvae are whitish soft-bodied grubs, and 
are found in water, in earth, or in decaying wood. In shape they are 
cylindrical, tapering at each end, with a small retractile head, and 
with the first seven of the eight abdominal segments each encircled 
near its anterior margin with a ring of fleshy protuberances, of which 
there are " two transverse dorsal, one lateral on each side, and four 
rounded ventral ones."* Horse-fly larvae are carnivorous, preying 
upon beetle larvae, snails, worms, etc. The pupa which is not unlike 
that of a Lepidopterous insect, remains stationary in the earth or 

Tabanidae are sometimes preyed upon by robber-flies (Asilidae) ; 
thus at Brockenhurst, in the New Forest, on July 14th, 1894, Colonel 
Yerbury took a female Machimus atricapillns, Fin., feeding upon a 
male Chrysops cacutiens^ Linn., both of which specimens are now in 
the Museum collection. In foreign countries horse-flies are also "a 
favourite food of the fossorial wasps of the family Bembecidae. These 
wasps are apparently aware of the blood-sucking habits of their 
favourites, and attend on travellers and pick up the flies as they are 
about to settle down to their phlebotomic operations."t 

In Illinois,U.S.A.,a parasitic Hymenopteron(P//rt;w^f«j/ij^/i;iiV^w/j, 
Ashmead) has been bred from egg-masses of Tabanus atratus, Fabr., 
one of the largest and commonest of North American horse-flies, and 
in Austria an allied species {Phanurus {Telenomns) tabani, Mayr) 
was bred by the late Professor Friedrich Brauer from the eggs of an 
undetermined species of TabanusX 

* Hart, 'Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory ol Natural History,' Vol. IV. (1895), 
p. 222. 

t D. Sharp, * The Cambridge Natural History.— Insects : Part II.* (London : Macmillan 
& Co. : 1899). P. 482. 

X Hart, he. cit,^ p. 245, and Ashmead, ibid.^ p. 276. 




Hssmatopota pluYialis, Linn. 

Plate II.— Fig. i, cf ;fig. 2, ?. 

This species is one of the commonest and most generally dis- 
tributed of British blood-sucking flies. It occurs throughout the 
British Islands, and is even to be met with in London suburbs, as 
shown by a specimen taken at Fulham, on July 12th, 1891. The 
dates on the specimens in the Museum collection prove that the 
perfect insect is on the wing from June to August inclusive. On 
the continent of Europe H, pluvuUis is equally widely distributed, 
and the Museum series includes examples from various localities, 
from Norway to Italy and Spain. 

With reference to this species Curtis writes (* British Entomology,* 
1834) that it is " common everywhere in woods, on palings in lanes 
&c, in June, July, and August, in England, Scotland, and Ireland ; 
the females, which attack both men and horses, sometimes appear in 
myriads without one male." 

The preliminary stages of H. fluvialis are passed in the soil 

Hssmatopota orassioornis, Whlbg. 

Plate 12. 

Care is needed for the distinction of this species from the foregoing, 
with which it agrees in distribution. So far as coloration, however, 
goes, H. crassicornis is distinctly the darker species of the two, 
while in both sexes the light stripes on the thorax are more 


The smallest specimen of this species in the Museum collection, 
a female taken in the Avon Valley, S. Devon, by Lieut -Colonel 
Yerbury, on June 19th, 1896, measures 8 mm. in length; the largest 
specimen, a male taken by the writer at Gravesend, Kent, on June 
28th, 1894, is II mm. long, exceeding the largest British example of 
H, pluvialis by i mm. The Museum series of H, crassicoruis is from 
various localities between and including Glen Avon, S. Banff- 
shire, N.B. ( W. R. Ogilvie Grant), and Avon Valley, S. Devon 
{Lieut, 'Colonel Yerbury) ; the dates of these specimens range from 
May 24th (Avon Valley, S. Devon), to July 27th (Gravesend : E, E. 
Austett), There are also Irish examples from Glengariff, Co. Cork, 
June 1 2th and 14th, 1901 {Lieut.-Colonel Yerbury) ; and Leenane, Co. 
Galway, July 14th, 1892 {E, E, Austen), It is impossible to say any- 
thing as to the range of this species outside the British Islands, since 
at present the Museum possesses no examples from abroad. 

With reference to this and the foregoing species Colonel Yerbury 
writes : — " Though common in Scotland, these species are not such 
pests there as in the south of England. As an instance of the numbers 
in which they are sometimes met with, the following extract from one 
of the writer's old diaries may be quoted :— " Loddiswell, S. Devon, 
June 30th, 1896, HcBtnatopota galore: killed forty-seven flying 
round me." 

Hssmatopota italioa, Mg. 

This species can at once be distinguished from either H. pluvialis 
or crassicornis by the pale femora and the greater length of the 
antenna?. The largest of three females of H. italica in the old 
Stevensian collection of British Diptera, which is unfortunately 
entirely without locality labels, exceeds in size any British specimens 
of H, pluvialis or crassicornis in the Museum series, and measures 
12 mm. in length, exclusive of the antenna?, which are 2\ mm. long. 

In the British Islands, so far as our present knowledge goes, 
HcBmatopota italica would appear to be much more rare and local than 
either of the other indigenous species of this genus. The only 
modem British specimen in the Museum collection is a female, 10 mm. 


in length, from Netley, Hants, July 22nd, 1893 {Miss Gertrude 
Ricardo), The species has, however, also been taken in recent years 
by Mr. L. C. Chawner in the New Forest, Hants, and by Mr. G. H. 
Verrall in Canvey Island, Essex. It may be noted that the specimen 
figured by Curtis (* British Entomology,' 1834) was also from Essex 
(Mersea Isle). Continental specimens of this species in the Museum 
collection are chiefly from southern localities (Italy, the Morea, Greece, 
and Cyprus). In Austria, according to Schiner (* Fauna Austriaca. — 
Die Fliegen (Diptera)/ I. p. 39), Htematopota italica is more common 
than H. pluvialis\ it is, however, not certain that Schiner*s inter- 
pretation of Meigen's H. italica is the same as that current in this 
country, since, according to the Austrian Dipterist, the femora should 
be black. Meigen*s original description, which merely states that 
H. italica is distinguished from H. pluvialis by the antennae, says 
nothing about the femora. 


Theriopleotes micans, Mg. 

Plate 13. 

This is a shining black species, distinguishable from the bisignatus 
form of 77/. tropicus (Plate 16), which it resembles in appearance, by 
the legs being entirely black. Further means of recognition are 
afforded in the male by the presence of a bunch of long erect hairs 
at the end of each of the first four joints of the front tarsi ; and in the 
female by the frontal triangle (the area of the head between the 
anterior angles of the eyes and the antennae) being, with the excep- 
tion of a narrow border immediately above the base of each antenna, 
shining black instead of dull grey. In the case of the male, the eyes 
of the living insect are described by Brauer (Denkschr. k. Akad. 
Wiss , math.-naturw. CI, 42 Bd. (1880), p. 137) as "on the lower half 
with three purple bands on a bright green ground, and purple- 


coloured lower margin ; or bluish- violet, underneath with three green 
bands bordered with red " ; the eyes of the female are green, with 
from three to four purple bands. The abdomen of the female Is 
rather broad. 

Of this species there are no modem British specimens in the 
Museum collection. Colonel Yerbury writes that it is " very rare," 
and that he has met with it " only at Fordingbridge, Hants, and 
Barmouth, North Wales." According to Brauer {loc, cit,, p. 138), 
Mr. Verrall has taken it at Lyndhurst, New Forest, Hants, in June. 
The Continental series of Th. micans in the possession of the Museum 
includes specimens from Rhenish Prussia and Bohemia. 

Theriopleotes borealis, {Mg. pro parte) Brauer. 

The only British specimen of this mountain species in the Museum 
collection is a male from Glen Avon, S. Banffshire, N.B., June 8th, 
1893 (JF. R, Ogilvie Grant), of which the dimensions are — length, 
1 5 mm. ; width of head, 5 mm. ; wing expanse, 27I mm. The 
general coloration of the insect is brown, with a chestnut-coloured 
patch on each side of the second and third abdominal segments ; the 
hind margin of the first s^ment is also of the same colour on each 
side, and there is just a trace of a similar patch on each side of the 
fourth segment. The eyes of this male are densely clothed with light 
yellowish-brown hair, and the facets on the upper two-thirds of each 
eye, except the hind margin, are conspicuously larger than those 
below, the change from the large to the small facets being somewhat 

According to Brauer (loc, city pp. 143, 144), in the living insect the 
eyes of the male are " green, with one or two purple bands," while 
those of the female are described as "green, with three broad 
purple bands, sometimes very dark." Brauer states that the front 
(/>., the space between the eyes) in the female is " very broad and 
short, at the most from two and a-half to three times higher than 

Of Continental specimens of this species the Museum possesses 
a male from Alten, Finmark, July, 1903 {Sir G. F. Hampsoii, Bl) ; 


a female from the same locality, presented by the Entomological 
Club, in 1844 ; and a second female, taken at Marcha, near Yakutsk, 
Siberia, on June 7th, 1900. According to Brauer, Tlu horealis ranges 
from Lapland and Sweden to the Austrian Alps. 

Theriopleotes montanus, Mg. 

Plate 14. 

In British specimens of this species there is a considerable 
difference in appearance between the two sexes, due partly to the 
male abdomen being more pointed at the tip (as is also the case in 
other species), and partly to the contrast of colours in the abdomen 
being much sharper in the male than in the female. Of three males 
of Th, montanus in the Museum collection, from Loo Bridge, Co. 
Kerry, Ireland, the smallest is 12, the largest 13J mm. in length ; the 
length of seventeen Scotch and Irish females varies from 12 to 
14^ mm. Continental specimens are larger, and may attain a length 
of 16 and 17 mm. in the case of the male and female respectively. 

The area of enlarged facets in the upper portion of the eyes of 
the male is not sharply distinguished from the remainder of the 
eye-surface. Brauer ijoc. cit.y pp. 144-145) describes the coloration 
of the eye^ of the male as " green, with three purple bands and red 
lower margin bordering the face''; while, with reference to the female 
he writes : " Eyes emerald-green, with three linear carmine-red 
bands, the middle one of which often does not reach the hinder 
margin of the eye ; upper and lower margin emerald-green." 

So far as regards the British fauna, Th, montanus would appear 
to be essentially a Scotch and Irish species, since the Museum 
collection includes no specimens from England or Wales. Colonel 
Yerbury's note runs : " Very common in Ireland, at Loo Bridge and 
other places in County Kerry ; common, too, in Scotland, where in 
July it succeeds Th, luridus in the sand-hills ; it also occurs, among 
other localities, on the lower slopes of the Cairngorms." The Scotch 
specimens in the Museum are from Invershin, Sutherland; Nairn; 
Brodie, Elgin ; Nethy Bridge, Inverness-shire ; and Rannoch, Perth- 


shire ; all taken by Colonel Yerbury between July 3rd and 26th 
inclusive. From Ireland there are examples from Leenane, Co. 
Galway,.and Lough Conn, Co. Mayo, July 14th and 27th (E. E, 
Austeii) ; and from Loo Bridge, Co. Kerry, July 6th-8th(Zi«//.-Ci?A?/;r/ 
Yerbury), The Continental series is from various localities from 
Norway to Rhenish Prussia. The range of the species as given 
by Brauer, in addition to Germany and Austria, includes Sweden, 
Russian Lapland, South Russia, and Eastern Siberia. 

Theriopleotes loridus, Fin. 
Plate 15. 

This handsome species resembles the foregoing ( 77/. montamis) in 
size, while (as may be seen from a comparison of Plates 14 and 15) 
the general arrangement of the light and dark markings in the 
abdomen is similar to that presented by females of Th. montanus, in 
which the lateral ochraceous patches are well developed. The colours 
in the abdomen of 77/. luridus^ however, are much richer ; the black 
area is deeper in tone and more shining, while the lateral patches are 
chestnut instead of ochraceous. The predominance of black makes 
this a distinctly darker species than the forgoing. In both sexes of 
77/. luridus the hairy covering of the eyes is longer and darker than 
in Th, montanus (dark brown instead of yellowish brown or yellowish). 
Brauer {loccit^y^, 148) describes the eyes of the male as "green, 
with three purple bands and red margin next the face," and those of 
the female as " green, with three purple bands." 

The length of two males of 77/. luridus in the Museum collection, 
from Brodie, Elgin, N.B., June 9th and loth, 1905 {Lieut.-Colanel 
Yerbnry), is 12; and 13 J mm. respectively; seventeen Scotch females 
vary in length from iii to 14^ mm. The dimensions of Continental 
specimens are much the same, though a male from Norway measures 
as much as 14 mm. in length. 

A long series of this species was taken by Colonel Yerbury at 
Brodie, from June 5th to June loth, and at Nethy Bridge, Inverness- 
shire, N.B., from June 12th to July ist, 1905. It will be observed 


that the female specimen illustrated in Plate 15, which was taken by 
Colonel Yerbury at Aviemore, Inverness-shire, on June 5th, 1904, has 
a small appendix to the upper branch of the third vein in each wing, 
and traces of a similar appendix are to be seen in some of the other 
specimens in the Museum. In the British Islands Therioplectes luridus 
would appear to be a northern species, and as yet the Museum 
possesses no specimens from either England, Wales, or Ireland. 
Colonel Yerbury writes : — " In Scotland this is the earliest of the 
Tabanidae. In May 1905, it was met with in numbers near Nairn, 
when both sexes were found sitting on a sandy road leading to 
Mairston Sand Hills. A single female was taken at Aviemore on 
June 5th, 1904. Probably all the Tabanidae seen by me in Scotland 
at this time of the year belonged to this species." The Continental 
specimens of this species in the Museum collection are all from 
Norway ; additional localities given by Brauer are Swedish- Lapland, 
Sweden, Poland, Silesia, and Bohemia. 

Therioplectes tropicus, Pz. {nee Mg.). 

(Form bisignatus, Jaenn.) 

Plate 16. 

In its typical form this species has an ochraceous or ochraceous- 
buff patch on each. side of the abdomen extending from the posterior 
angles of the first to the posterior margin of the third or anterior 
border of the fourth segment, leaving a broad median black stripe 
one-third of the abdomen in width. Two males in the possession of 
the Museum from Oxshott, Surrey, June 9th, 1895 {Lieut. -Colonel 
Yerbury and W. R. Ogilvie Grant), and Chattenden Roughs, Kent, 
July I2th, 1902 {If, W. Andrews), respectively are of this character, 
but the whole of the British females in the Museum series [15] are of 
the melanochroic form bisignatus, of which a specimen is illustrated 
in Plate 16, which accordingly would appear to be the common 
British form of the female of this species. As a further proof of this 
conclusion it may be mentioned that at Oxshott on June 9th, 1895, 

Colonel Yerbury and Mr. W. R Ogilvie Grant took, in addition to 
the normal male already mentioned, three females, of the bisignatus 
form. In many of the females in the Museum collection there is no 
trace of the russet markings on the sides of the second abdominal 
segment seen in the specimen shown in the plate, but the abdomen 
appears wholly black, with, however, a longitudinal row of whitish 
markings on each side of the median series of white triangles. The 
resemblance between the form bisignatus and Therioplectes fuicanSy 
Mg., has already been alluded to in the notes on the latter species 
(see page 37). 

The two males of Th, tropicus referred to above are \\\ mm. in 
length, with a wing-expanse of 28 mm. ; the length of the females 
varies from 14 to 15 J mm. According to Brauer (Joccit,, pp. 146-147) 
the eyes in this species are green with three purple bands ; in the 
male the lower margin is green and unbanded. The Museum pos- 
sesses no specimens of this species from Wales, Scotland, or Ireland, 
but in England at any rate Th, tropicus appears to be among the 
more common of the larger horse-flies. The dates of capture of the 
females in the Museum series range from May i6th to July 12th inclu- 
sive, and the localities are Brinklow, Warwickshire {E, E, Austen) ; 
Berkhamsted, Herts ( W. R. O. Grant) \ Felden, Boxmoor, Herts 
{A. Piffard)\ Colchester, Essex (fF. H. Harwood) ; Oxshott, Surrey 
(IV. R, O, Grant and Lieut, -Colopul Yerbury) ; and New Forest, Hants 
{Lieut,'Colonel Yerbury and C. O. Waterhouse), In the last-mentioned 
locality Colonel Yerbury notes that bisignatus is the common form of 
the species. Continental specimens of Th. tropicus in the Museum 
collection are from Siberia, Norway and Russia (typical form), and from 
Rhenish Prussia (form bisignatus). Additional Continental localities 
given by Brauer are Sweden, Germany and Austria for the typical 
form, and France, Silesia and Asiatic Russia for the form bisignatus, 
which was originally described from a specimen from the neighbour- 
hood of Paris. 


Theriopleotes solstitialis, Schin., Brauer (? Mg.). 

Plate 17. 

In this species, which is the most brightly coloured of the larger 
British Tabanidae, the two sexes are alike in coloration, though the 
black median dorsal stripe on the abdomen is usually narrower and 
more distinctly defined in the male. Of eight British males in the 
Museum collection the smallest is 14I, the largest 16J mm. in length, 
while twenty females vary in length from 14J to 17 mm. The eyes 
of the male according to Brauer {loc. ciL, p. 1 50), are " dark green, 
with a strong purple sheen above, with two purple bands on the 
lower third, and with the rudiment of a similar band on the edge 
of the larger facets " ; those of the female are described as " bright 
green, with a coppery sheen, or bluish green, with three narrow 
purple bands, which often have a yellow edging." 

The dates of capture of the Museum series of Th, solsiitialis range 
from June 13th to July 22nd inclusive. The localities are, in Scotland : 
Nethy Bridge and Aviemore, Inverness-shire ; Nairn ; Brodie, Elgin ; 
and Rannoch, Perthshire {LieuL-Colonel Yerbury) ; Taynuilt, Argyll- 
shire {A, Beaumont) ; and Goatfell, Arran {Sir G. F. Hampson^ Bt,). 
In Wales : Barmouth, Merionethshire {^Lient, -Colonel Yerbury), And 
in England : Tarrington, Herefordshire ; Lyndhurst, New Forest, 
and Ringwood, Hants {Lieut, -Colonel Yerbury^*, Beaulieu, Hants 
{Miss Gertrude Ricardo) ; Avon and Walkham Valleys, S. Devon 
(Lieut.'Colonel Yerbury) ; and near Bude, Cornwall (5. G, Rye). In 
th^ Museum general collection there are specimens from Norway, 
and the localities given by Brauer show that the species occurs south- 
wards as far as Hungary and the Tyrol, and eastwards on the Amur 
river in Russian Asia. 

Colonel Yerbury writes that in Great Britain TA. solsiitialis is 
" very common and generally distributed. The males are frequently 
seen hovering over roads through woods, and the habit seems to be 
confined to this species. Although not painful, the bite of the 
female is very severe, and draws blood more often than that of any 
other species." 


ATYLOTUS, Osten Sacken. 

Atylotns falviis, Mg. 

Plate 1 8. 

The general ochreous colour of the body will serve to distinguish 
this species, which is one of the rarer of our British horse-flies. 
Rubbed specimens, however, look darker owing to the disappearance 
of the short silky golden hairs, which cover the body and produce 
the characteristic hue, and in the specimen figured in the plate these 
hairs are unfortunately wanting on the abdomen. 

The only British specimens of A,/u/vus thsit the Museum possesses 
are a male, from Lyndhurst, New Forest, Hants, June 24th, 1897, 
and five females, from the same locality and Lyndhurst Road, 
June 29th and July 8th, 1897 {LieuL-Colonel Yerbury) ; Beau- 
lieu, Hants, July 15th, 1898 {Miss Gertrude Ricardd) ; and Kenmare, 
Co. Kerry, Ireland, June 30th, 1901 {Lieut- Colonel Yerbury). The 
length of the male is 14J mm. ; that of the five females varies from 
14! to 15J mm. The eyes of the male are usually without bands; 
those of the female are described by Brauer (loc. cit.y p. 170) as "pale 
olive-green, with an oblique fine dark line and shot with several 
almost black round spots." In the male of this as of the following 
species an area in the upper half of the eye, running from the inner 
nearly to the outer margin, is composed of much larger facets than 
the remainder. 

Writing of A, fulvus Colonel Yerbury says that it is " a rare 
species," and that he has met with it " only in the New Forest, and at 
Glengariff and Kenmare in Ireland." 

The Continental series of this species in the Museum collection 
includes examples from Hungary,Switzerland, and Spain. According 
to Brauer it is generally distributed throughout Central and Southern 
Europe, and is also found in Scandinavia, Russia, and Asia Minor. 


Atylotns rastions, Fabr. 

In the British Islands this species is even more rare than the 
foregoing, from which it may be distinguished by the greyer tint of 
the short hair covering the body. The dimensions are similar to 
those of A.fulvus. The eyes of the male sometimes have a purplish 
transverse line at the junction of the large and small facets ; similarly 
those of the female are either unhanded or in some cases have a 
single narrow band. 

The only modern British example of this species in the Museum 
is a male from North-east Essex ( W. H. Harwood), of which the 
date of capture is unfortunately unknown ; but a male and female 
without locality labels are contained in the old Stevensian collection. 
The general collection of Diptera includes specimens from France, 
Hungary, and Algeria. The localities given by Brauer {loc.ctLy p. 169) 
show that the species is distributed throughout Central and Southern 

TABANUS, Linnaeus. 

Tabanns boviniis, Lw. (Schiner pro parte.) 

Plate 19. 

This and the following species, Tabanus sudetiats, Zlr. (Plate 20) 
are the bulkiest of all British Diptera, and on the whole T. sudeticus 
is slightly the larger of the t^vo. Although as a rule specimens of the 
latter species are distinctly darker than those of 71 bovinus, the females 
are often difficult to distinguish, and it is by no means easy to give 
thoroughly satisfactory characters for their separation. The males of 
the two species, on the other hand, can readily be distinguished owing 
to the fact that while the facets in the upper half of the eye of T. 


bovinus are not noticeably larger than those in the lower, the facets in 
the upper two-thirds of the eye of the male T. sudeticus are, with the 
exception of those on the hind margin, at least four times the size of 
the rest In both species the ^yts are devoid of bands, and, according 
to Brauer (Joe. cit,^ pp. 184, 185), in the living insect, while those of 
the male of T. bovinus are entirely green, the eyes of the male T. 
sudeticus are " blackish, with a coppery sheen, the larger facets greyish, 
the smaller ones more reddish." In the case of the females the colour 
of the eyes is given by Brauer {he. eit., p. 136) as "emerald green" in 
T. bovinus^ and as " always blackish-brown, with a coppery sheen " in 
T. sudetieus. In both sexes the pale hind margins of the abdominal 
segments are usually more distinctly marked off from the ground colour 
in T. sudetieus than in T. bovhius. 

The British series of Tabanus bovinus in the possession of the 
Museum includes two males (both of which are from the Waller 
Clifton collection, and unfortunately without either localities 
or dates), and nine females, all from the southern counties ; 
the following are the localities and dates of the female specimens : — 
Oxshott, Surrey, June i6th, 1895, {W. R. Ogilvie Grant) \ 
Farnham, Surrey, July 13th, 1899, — "on window of Sub Post Office" 
(^. Rawlins) ; Froyle, Hants, July 6th, 1893 ( ^- ^- Ogilvie Grant) ; 
Lyndhurst, New Forest, Hants, June 30th, 1894 {Lieut. -Colonel 
Yerbury), July 21st, 1890 (/^ W. Frohaivk), and August, 1893 
(A. C. Chawner)\ Ringwood, Hants, June 29th, 1894 {Lieut. -Colonel 
Yerbury)\ and Ivybridge, S. Devon, July 26th, 1889 {Lieut.-Colonel 

The two males are respectively 20 and 2i| mm. in length, and their 
wing-expanse is 37^ mm. in the one case and 39 mm. in the other. 
The smallest British female in the Museum series is 21 J mm. in length, 
the largest 23^ mm. (wing-expanse 47 mm.). 

In addition to British specimens of T. bomnus^ the Museum 
possesses examples from the South of France, Hungary, and Polish 
Ukraine. Additional localities given by Brauer show that the species 
is found from Sweden to Italy, and eastwards to Siberia and the Amur. 

Of the habits of this species Brauer writes {loc.cit.yip. 187): — 
" The females swarm round horses, cattle, and deer. The males hover 
in the air in clearings in woods, and above somewhat elevated places 


in meadows, but not on mountain tops ; they do this especially on 
sultry, thundery days, in the sun after downpours of rain, or early in 
the morning." 

Tabanas sudetious, Zlr. 
, Plate 20. 

The British specimens of this fine species in the Museum collec- 
tion consist of one male (length 20^ mm.) and thirteen females ; the 
length of the latter ranges from 20^ to 24J mm. ; the wing-expanse 
of the largest female is 48 mm. In view of the particulars as to this 
species already given (see 7". bovinus), it is now only necessary to 
refer to the localities and dates of our specimens. Brauer [loc, cit,, 
p. 185) states that in Austria 7*. sudeticus ison the wing much later in the 
year than T. bavinuSy and that while the latter occurs in May and until 
the middle of June, the former is met with at the end of June and 
throughout July and August. In the British Islands, however, the 
time of flight of the two species would seem to be pretty much the 
• same. The localities and dates of the British specimens of T. sudeticus 
in the Museum collection are as follows: — Brodie, Elgin, N.B., 
August 2nd, 1905 {LieuL-Colonel Yerbury) ; Nethy Bridge, Inverness- 
shire, N.B., July 8th and 9th, 1905 {Lieut-Colonel Yerbury) ; Drimmin, 
Sound of Mull, Argyllshire, N.B., 1904 {Miss Henrietta Brown) ; 
Bimam, Perthshire, N.B., August 25th, 1894 {H, 5. Barr)\ Goat Fell, 
Arran, N.B., June 20th, 1893 (-^^^ ^- ^- Hampson, Bt,)\ Felden, 
Boxmoor, Herts, July 7th, 1893 (^- Piffard) ; Budshead Wood, 
S. Devon, July ist, 1889 (cf), and VValkham Valley, S. Devon, 
July 31st, 1896 {Lieut,- Colonel Yerbury)\ Kenmare, Co. Kerry, 
Ireland, June 28th, and July 7th and loth, 1901 {Lieut. -Colonel 
Yerbury) \ and Glencar, Co. Kerry, August i6th, 1901 {Lieut.-Colonel 

Colonel Yerbury writes : — " Tabanus sudeticus ^ Zlr., was the 
commonest horse-fly at Kenmare in July, 1901 ; in Scotland it 
seems to be rather an uncommon species. 7". sudeticus and T, bovinus 


both make a deep hum when flying round one, quite unlike the note 
produced by the smaller Tabanidae/* 

The Museum general collection of Diptera contains specimens of 
7*. suditicus from Hungary and Spain ; additional localities given by 
Brauer show that the species is generally distributed throughout 
Europe. Writing with reference to Austria, Brauer says : — " Before 
sunrise the males hover and swarm in the air above the highest 
mountain-tops, e,g,, the Dobratsch (according to Buchmiiller) and 
Hohen Zinken (as stated by Frauenfeld), and sit on fences in the 
sun during the morning after emerging from the pupa ; the females 
are found on the leaves of shrubs and on cattle" 

Tabanas antomnalis, Linn. 

Plates 21 and 22. 

The striking sexual difference in the marking and coloration of the 
abdomen exhibited by this species is well shown in the plates ; the 
difference in the appearance of the head in the two sexes, caused by 
the eyes meeting together in the males, which are consequently said^ 
to be " holoptic," is common to all Tabanidae, as also to many other 
Diptera (compare Plates 1 1 and 26). Of Tabanus autumnalis, which 
in the South of England, according to Colonel Yerbury, is" one of the 
commonest species of the genus," the British Museum possesses nine 
modern British specimens (five males and four females), from the 
following localities : — N.E. Essex and Colchester, Essex, date of cap- 
ture unknown, ( W. //. Harwood) ; Felden, Boxmoor, Herts, July 17th, 
1899 {A. Piffard) ; Harrow, Middlesex, July 1 5th, 1901 ( W. D, Lang) ; 
Brockenhurst, New Forest, Hants, May 30th, 1896 {Miss Gertrude 
Ricardo) ; Dunster, Somerset, August ist, 1902 {Lieut, -Colonel C. T. 
Bing/utm)\ S. Devon, — Avon Valley, May 15th, 1896, Warleigh 
Marsh, June 24th, 1889, and Tamerton Folliott, June 29th, 1889 
{Lieut.'Colonel Yerbury), The Museum general collection contains 
specimens of this species from France, Portugal, Hungary, Italy, and 
Algeria. The localities given by Brauer {loc, cit., p. 193) show that it 


is found throughout Central and Southern Europe, from Sweden to 
Corsica and Corfu, while it also occurs in Asia Minor. 

The eyes in T. autumnalis are without bands ; Brauer describes 
those of the male as " black, iridescent, the large facets grey." As 
regards the dimensions of the British specimens in the Museum, the 
length of the males varies from i6 to 19 mm., that of the females 
from i6| to 20 mm. ; the wing-expanse of the largest female is 38 mm. 

Tabanus bromins, Linn. 
Plate 13. 

This species, as stated by Colonel Yerbury, is very common in the 
south of England ; it is also the most easily recognised of the smaller 
species of Tabanus^ since the large, conspicuous, and sharply defined 
yellowish spots on the abdomen give it quite a distinctive appearance. 
It is true that dark females of TheriopUctes montanuSy Mg., with little 
or no chestnut colour on the sides of the abdomen present a certain 
similarity to females of the present species, but they can, of course, at 
once be distinguished by the eyes being conspicuously hairy. 

An examination of the British series of Tabanus bromius in the 
Museum collection shows that the males vary in length from 1 3I to 
IS mm., while the length of the females ranges from 13^ to 16 mm. 
The eyes of the male have an area of large facets in the upper half; 
those of the female are described by Brauer {loc, cit, p. 188) as being 
" sometimes lighter, sometimes darker green, shimmering red " ; in 
both sexes the ^y^s have a single purple band. 

In England Tabanus bromius ^ovXA appear to be on the wing from 
June to August ; the localities and dates of the British specimens in the 
possession of the Museum are as follows : — Stockenchurch, Oxford- 
.shire, August 15th — i8th, 1896 {Lieut, -Coloful Yerbury) \ Oxshott, 
Surrey, June i6th, 1895 {W. R. Ogilvie Grant)) Bearsted, Kent, 
July 26th, 1896 {B. B, Green) ; Crowborough, Sussex, July loth, 1892 
( W. R. Ogilvie Grant) ; Lyndhurst, New Forest, Hants, June 28th — 
July 2ist {Lieut.'Colonel Yerbury ; F. C Adams ; F. IV, Frohawk)\ 



Christchurch, Hants, July ist, \%g/^ {Lieut, -Colonel Yerbury)\ various 
localities in S. Devon, June 24th — July 30th, 1889 {Lieut.-Colonel 

Tabanus bromius is distributed throughout Europe ; the Museum 
series (general collection) includes specimens from France, Switzerland, 
Italy, Hungary, and Corsica. As an instance of the abundance of this 
species in certain Continental localities, it may be mentioned that 
Brauer states that he once captured about one hundred specimens of 
71 bromius on a window near Liezen in Upper Styria. 

Tabanns maonlioornis, Ztt. 
Plate 24. 

In the marking of the abdomen the females of this species 
resemble those of the foregoing, though the spots are paler and often 
less sharply defined. Apart, however, from their usually smaller 
size and darker appearance, the females of 7". maculicornis can at 
once be distinguished from those of T, bromius by the much greater 
width of the light-grey supra-occipital border of the head, behind 
the upper margin of the eyes. In the male sex also the abdominal 
markings are paler than in 7. bromius (whitish instead of yellow), 
while the head is relatively much larger. According to Brauer 
(Joe, cit,^ pp. 197-198), the eyes of the male of 7. maculicornis 
are " green, with a broad purple band at the junction of the different 
sized facets " ; those of the female are described as " green, often 
with a coppery sheen, with a sometimes narrower, sometimes 
broader, purple band, which becomes less distinct towards the inner 
and outer margins." Tabanus maculicornis is, as a rule, distinctly 
the smallest of the British species of Tabanus^ although small females 
of 7. cordiger^ Mg. (Plate 25), sometimes do not exceed large females 
of the present species in size. In the British series of 7. maculicornis 
in the Museum collection the length of the males ranges from 11 toN 
13 mm., and that of the females from ii^ to 13^ mm. The time of 
flight appears to be June and July. 

Colonel Yerbury notes that this species, like the foregoing, is 


very common in the south of England. The modem British series 
belonging to the Museum at present consists of two males and 
eleven females from the following localities : Woolmer Forest, Hants, 
June, 1893 {Colonel Irby); Crabwood, Winchester, Hants, July 20th, 
1893 (^- C, Chawner); Lyndhurst Road, New Forest, Hants, June 
14th, \%g/^ {Lieut, 'Colonel Yerbury); Fordingbridge, Hants, June nth, 
1897 {Lieut, 'Colonel Yerbury); various localities in S. Devon, June 
I ith — ^July 4th {Lieut, 'Colonel Yerbury), The Museum general collec- 
tion includes specimens of T, macnlicornis from Norway, Brittany 
Germany, and Austria. 

Tabanns oordiger, Mg. 

Plate 25. 

In this species also the head of the male is large, and strongly 
concavo-convex, with a conspicuous area of large facets in the upper 
half of each eye ; the female may be recognised by the exceptionally 
broad front (space between the eyes), and by the shape of the shining 
black callus between the lower angles of the eyes, which is large and 
square^ and occupies practically the whole width of the front. Brauer 
{loc, cit^ pp. 201-202) describes the eyes of the male as "grey above, 
green in the lower fourth," with a dark transverse band between the 
large and small facets ; the ty^s of the female are stated to be 
unhanded. Two British males of this species are each 14J mm. in 
length ; seven females measure from 13 to 15 mm. 

According to Colonel Yerbury, Tabanus cordiger is " usually a rare 
insect, but occurs plentifully in the Abemethy Forest, Inverness-shire, 
in July and August." The British series in the Museum at present 
consists of two males and seven females, the localities and dates of 
which are as follows: Nethy Bridge, Inverness-shire, N.B., July 26th — 
29th, 1904 {Lieut, 'Colonel Yerbury) ; Braemar, Aberdeenshire, N.B., 
July 22nd, 1873 {G, H. Verrall) ; Avon Valley, S. Devon, May 27th 
and 28th, and June 12th and 19th, 1896 {Lieut.'Colonel Yerbury) \ 
Walkham Valley, S. Devon, July 21st, 1889 {Lieut, -Colonel Yerbury), 
The Museum general collection includes specimens of this species 


from Hungary, Corsica, Cyprus, and Biskra, Algeria. Additional 
localities given by Brauer show that it extends throughout Central 
and Southern Europe, and is also found in Asia Minor. 

Tabanns glanoopis, Mg. 

This species, of which the Museum at present possesses no British 
examples, resembles Tabanus bromiuSy but may be distinguished by 
the presence of a fairly broad and conspicuous yellow edging to the 
abdominal segments. The other abdominal markings are also 
yellower, and a further character for the recognition of the females is 
afforded by a conspicuous and rather broad median black callus on 
the front, above the callus between the lower angles of the eyes, with 
which it is not connected. The head of the male in shape and size is 
similar to that of the foregoing species ; according to Brauer {loc. cit., 
p. 199) the facets in the upper three-quarters of the eye are about four 
times larger than those in the lower quarter. The colour of the ^y^s 
of the male is described by Brauer as " grey, dark at the margin, green 
below, with a purple shimmer ; in the lower fourth with three purple 
bands, the uppermost of which is divided towards its inner extremity." 
Brauer describes the eyes of the female as " green, red above towards 
the vertex and on the lower margin, in the centre with three curved 
and yellow-bordered purple bands." The length of the male is stated 
by Brauer as 16*5 mm., that of the female as from 16 to 18 mm. 
Nine Continental females in the Museum collection vary in length 
from 13I to 16 mm. 

The geographical range of Tabanus glaucopis includes Central and 
Southern Europe. The Museum possesses specimens from Brittany 
the South of France, Spain, and the Tyrol. 


CHRYSOPS, Meigen. 

Chrysops csBCutiens, Linn. 

Plate 26. 

The figures in the plate illustrate the striking sexual difference in 
the coloration and marking of the abdomen, which, though also seen 
in the case of Chrysops quadrafa and relicta^ is much more pronounced 
in the present species. It should be noted, however, that on the 
ventral surface of the abdomen of the male C. ccecutiens there is a 
yellow patch on each side, which frequently extends on to the upper 
surface and forms a more or less conspicuous ochraceous fleck on each 
side of the second segment. In life the eyes of this as of the 
other species of the genus are extremely beautiful, even when com- 
pared with those of other Tabanidae, which as a family are distin- 
guished for the beauty of their eyes ; the ground-colour is golden or, 
reddish-green, and is marked with purple spots and lines. 

Chrysops ccecutiens has been taken by Colonel Yerbury at Torcross 
S. Devon, as early as May 24th, and the Museum series of specimens 
shows that it is on the wing at any rate until the end of the first week 
in August. The dates and localities of the specimens are as follows : — 
Nairn, N.B., July 17th, 1904 {Lieut. -Colonel Yerbury) ; Oundle, North- 
ants, July 1 6th, 1905 {Hon. N. C. Rothschild) ; Rugby, Warwickshire, 
July 3rd, 1890, July lOth, 1892 (E, E. Austen) ; Felden, Boxmoor, 
Herts, July 24th, 1893 {A. Piffard) ; Bearsted, Kent, July loth, 1896 
(£. E. Green) ; Fawkham, Kent, July 7th, 1895 ( W. E. de Win ton) ; 
Tilgate Forest, Sussex, August 3rd, 1890 {E. E. Austen) \ Woolmer 
Forest, Hants, August 7th, 1892 ( W, R. Ogilvie Grant) ; Lyndhurst and 
Lyndhurst Road, New Forest, Hants, June 25th to July 12th, 1894 
{Lieut,'Colonel Yerbury) ; various localities in S. Devon, May 24th to 
July 28th {Lieut-Colonel Yerbury) ; Porthcawl, Glamoi^anshire, S. 
Wales, June 17th and i8th, 1903 {Lieut-Colonel Yerbury). 


In England, on the whole, this is probably the commonest species 
of its genus, although in some localities its place appears to be taken 
by Chrysops relicta. Colonel Yerbury writes that " the genus Chrysops 
does not seem to be plentiful in Scotland " ; and he further adds that 
" Chrysops and Hamatopota are silent or almost so in their approach ; 
Tabanus^ on the other hand, announces its arrival with a more or 
less loud hum." At Brockenhurst, in the New Forest, on July 14th, 
1894, Colonel Yerbury captured a female of Machimus atricapillus. 
Fin. (a small Robber-fly), feeding on a male of the present species. 

The geographical range of Chrysops cacutiens extends throughout 
Europe to Siberia ; the Continental series in the Museum includes 
specimens from France, Germany, Bohemia and Corsica. 

Chrysops qnadrata, Mg. 

Plate 27. 

In the male of this species the basal half of the abdomen shows 
a considerable amount of yellow at the sides, though the median 
quadrate black spot on the second segment, which is a continuation 
of the black area on the first, is very much larger than in the female, 
and nearly reaches the hind margin. As in the female, the hinder 
portion of the third segment, and sometimes that of the fourth as 
well, is conspicuously yellow. The median black spot on the second 
abdominal segment of the female is variable in shape as well as in 
size, being sometimes nearly square and sometimes more or less dis- 
tinctly cordate. In the specimen illustrated it is connected with the 
blotch on the first segment, but more frequently it is separate. 

Next to Chrysops sepulchralis^ Fabr., C quadrata is less often met 
with than any other of the British species of the genus. Colonel 
Yerbury writes that it is " as a rule rare, but is the common form in 
Denny Wait in the New Forest." The Museum series at present 
consists of one male and eight females, from the following localities : — 
Guestling, Hastings, Sussex, 1892 (JRev, E. N.BloomJUld); Lyndhurst 
and Lyndhurst Road, New Forest, Hants, July 3rd, 4th, and 21st; 


August I4th,and September ist, 1894 {LieuL-Colonel Yerbury); Holne, 
Dartmoor, S. Devon, July 6th, 1896 (^Lieut-Colonel Yerbury). 

Chrysops quadrata occurs on the Continent in Central and Southern 
Europe ; the general collection includes specimens from France, 
Germany, Hungary, and Corsica. 

Chrysops relicta, Mg. 

Plate 28. 

The width and shape of the black blotches on the second abdo- 
minal segment, as well as the sharply defined pale triangles and hind 
margins on the following segments afford a ready means for the dis- 
tinction of the female of this species from that of C. cceculiens. In 
the specimen illustrated in the plate the blotches on the second seg- 
ment are somewhat obscured by the wings, which are in the resting 
position. The markings of the male abdomen are similar to those of 
the female, but the sides of the basal portion are more tawny, and the 
pale triangles are much less distinct. 

The Museum series of British specimens of this species, which as 
Colonel Yerbury remarks, is " common and generally distributed," is 
a fairly long one, and shows that it is on the wing from the latter end 
of May until at any rate the third week in August. The localities and 
dates of the specimens, which, unless otherwise stated, were taken 
and presented by Lieut-Colonel Yerbury, are as follows : — Nairn, N.B., 
July 17th, 1904 ; Aviemore, Inverness-shire, N.B., July 7th and 9th, 
1899, and August 15th, 1898; Rannoch, Perthshire, N.B., July nth, 
1898 ; Lyndhurst, New Forest, Hants, July 4th, 1894 ; Brockenhurst, 
New Forest, August 17th, 1893 {W. R. Ogtlvte Grant) ; Torcross, S. 
Devon, May 24th to 26th, 1893 J Porthcawl, Glamorganshire, S. Wales, 
June 2Sth, 1903 ; Leenane, Co. Galway, Ireland, July 14th, 1892 
{E, E. Austen); Kenmare, Loo Bridge, and Parknasilla, Co. Kerry, 
Ireland, July 2nd to isth, 1901. 

The range of this species on the Continent includes Northern and 
Central Europe ; the Continental series of C relicta in the possession 


of the Museum, although at present very limited, includes specimens 
from such widely distant localities as the North Cape, Norway, and 
the South of France. 

Chrysops sepnloralis, Fabr. 

This species was not known to be British until two males were 
taken on Studland Heath, near Swanage, Dorset, on August 3rd, 1895, 
by Captain Savile Reid, by whom they were presented to the British 
Museum (Natural History). No further specimens of C. sepulcralis 
have since been received by the Museum, but a female was taken on 
Parley Common, near Ringwood, Hants, on August 8th, 1904, by 
Mr. G. H. Verrall. Chrysops sepnlcralisy which, in the British Islands, 
consequently appears to be decidedly rare and local, is a small species ; 
the two males referred to above are 8^ mm. in length, while a female 
from Germany measures only 7} mm. In this species the body is 
entirely black in both sexes, the outer margin of the dark transverse 
band across the wing is concave instead of, anteriorly at least, convex, 
and the face (except immediately beneath the base of the antennae) 
is wholly shining, the facial and jowl-tubercles being confluent. 

The geographical range of Chrysops sepulcralis includes Scandinavia, 
Germany, and Russia. 



The three British blood-sucking species belonging to this Family 
are all nearly allied to the Common House-fly {Musca domestica, Linn.), 
but derive an even greater interest from their close relationship to the 
African Tsetse-flies (Genus Glossina\ one species of which, Glossina 
palpalisy Rob.-Desv., is now widely known as the disseminator of the 
parasite which is the cause of the dread disease called sleeping 
sickness. In the Muscidne, which, in the widest sense of the term are 
perhaps the largest of all the families of Diptera, the blood-sucking 
habit is highly exceptional and is confined to a very few genera 
and species, all of which in appearance present a general resemblance 
to the Common House-fly. In cases in which the blood-sucking habit 
occurs, it appears to be common to both sexes. 

Blood-sucking Muscidae, with the exception of the Tsetse-flies^ 
breed in dung, depositing eggs from which are developed white 
maggots of the type of those of the Common Blow-fly {Calliphora 
erythrocephala^ Mg.). According to Riley and Howard, Lyperosia 
irritanSy Linn. {Hamatobia serrata, Rob.-Desv.), (Plate 30, fig. 2), 
oviposits on fresh cow-dung, and its eggs are irregularly oval in shape, 
flattened on one side, and from 1*25 to 1*37 mm. in length, by 0*34 to 
0*41 mm. in width. The newly-hatched larvae descend into the dung, 
and eventually when full-grown attain a length of 7 mm. Pupation 
takes place in the ground beneath, at a depth of from half to three- 
quarters of an inch. The puparium is of the normal Muscid type, 
dark-brown in colour, barrel-shaped, and from 4 to 4*5 mm. in length 
by 2 to 2*5 mm. in width. Stomoxys calcitrans^ Linn., breeds 
in horse-droppings, and its larvae are very similar to those of the 
Common House-fly, which also breeds in horse-dung. 


STOMOXYS, Geoffroy. 

Stomoxys oaloitrans, Linn. 
Plate 29. 

The similarity in size between this species and the House-fly 
{Musca domestica^ Linn.) sometimes causes Stomoxys to be mistaken 
for the latter, with the result that the House-fly is occasionally 
supposed to be capable of biting. Apart from points of difference 
afforded by markings, however, Stomoxys^ not to mention other struc- 
tural differences, can always be recognised by the little black, rigid 
piercing proboscis, which, as shown in the plate, when not in use 
projects horizontally in front of the head, whereas the fleshy, non- 
biting proboscis of the House-fly is normally carried drawn up into 
a cavity on the under side. The ^^y.^s of the present species can be 
distinguished by the front (space between the eyes) in the male 
being scarcely more than half the width of that in the female. 

Stomoxys calcitrans, which is the only European species of its 
genus, and, like Hietnatobia stimulans, Mg. (Plate 30, Fig. i), plagues 
both men and cattle, is common and generally distributed in the 
British Islands in summer and early autumn, and especially abundant 
in England in August and September, when it may often be seen 
sitting about in numbers on rails and gates in pasture-fields. The 
Museum series contains specimens from many different localities 
between and including the Southern Sutor, Cromarty, N.B., and South 
Devon. The dates of capture range from May 27th (Folkestone 
Kent) to October 3rd (Staines, Middlesex). 

With reference to this and the following species {Hamatobia 
stimulans^ Mg.), Colonel Yerbury writes : — " These are common 
species in the Thames Valley ; 5. calcitrans was abundant, too, at 
Newmarket in October, 1905. The amount of pain produced by 
the bite of a Dipteron probably depends upon the idiosyncrasy of 
the person bitten ; to the writer, however, the bite of these two 



species causes far greater pain than that of any othei' fly." Writing 
in the * Entomologist's Monthly Magazine/ Vol. II. (1865), pp. 142, 143, 
Mr. T. J. Bold gives instances of extraordinar>' virulence of the bite 
of S. calcitrans in the case of cattle and horses at Long Benton, 
Northumberland, in September, 1865. At one time a veterinary 
surgeon had fourteen cows under treatment for the bites. "The 
animals were generally bitten on the outside of the legs, on the 
shoulders, and, in rare cases, on the neck. In some of the severe 
cases the joints were so much swollen that the poor animals could 
not bend their legs to lie down, and in them the inflammation rose 
so high as to cause the loss of the outer skin and hair." The bites 
of the flies had no effect upon the hands of the veterinary surgeon 
attending the cows. 

The geographical range of Stomoxys calcitrans has not yet been 
fully elucidated, but it is undoubtedly very wide. The species is 
generally distributed in Europe, and also occurs in North America, 
where it is said to be very common throughout the inhabited parts. 
A race of it is found in the Gambia Colony, West Africa, and it has 
also been recorded as occurring in Hong Kong, Batavia (Java), 
Ceylon, and Sydney (New South Wales). A specimen from the 
Naini Tal District, in Northern India, is indistinguishable from 
British examples. 

H^MATOBIA, Robineau-Desvoidy. 

HsBmatobia stimulans, Mg. 

Plate 30, Fig. i. 

In habits, time of occurrence, and extent of distribution in the 
British Islands this species agrees with the foregoing. In point of 
size H, stimulans occupies a position intermediate between Stomoxys 
calcitrans and the following species. The head in both sexes is 
very much smaller than in S, calcitrans^ and the eyes in the male are 


much closer together, being only narrowly separated. The palpi, 
which in S, caldtrans are exceedingly slender and short, and cannot be 
seen when the insect is viewed from above, in the present species are 
prominent and expanded at the tips, and, though still distinctly 
shorter than the proboscis, are apparently capable of forming a partial 
sheath for that organ. 

The localities of the Museum series of specimens of this common 
species include the Northern Sutor, Cromarty, N.B., and Dartmoor, 
S. Devon ; in addition to various places in the midland and southern 
counties of England, there are also specimens from Barmouth, 
N. Wales, and Kenmare, Co. Kerry, Ireland {Lieut-Colonel Yerbury). 
The dates of capture range from May 5th to September 6th. For 
Colonel Yerbury^s notes, see the previous species. 

The Museum unfortunately possesses no specimens of Hcetnatobia 
stimulans from localities outside the British Islands, but it is 
probable that on the Continent it is as widely distributed as 
6". caldtranSy although, so far as the writer is aware, it has not 
yet been recorded from any locality outside Europe. Zetterstedt 
states that it occurs throughout Scandinavia, but in Austria, according 
to Schiner, it is somewhat rare. 

LYPEROSIA, Rondani. 

Lyperosia irritanSt Linn. 

Plate 30, fig. 2. 

In this species, which is by far the smallest of our native blood- 
sucking Muscida:, the female measuring only from 4J to 5 mm. in 
length, the palpi, as in the Tsetse-flies {Glossind) are flattened from 
side to side and form a complete sheath for the proboscis, which they 
equal in length. Lyperosia irritans does not appear to attack human 
beings, but is a pest of cattle, on the backs of which it is found, showing, 
according to Zetterstedt, a preference for black animals ; this latter 


trait is in accordance with the well-known predilection of other blood- 
sucking Diptera, such as Anopheles and Hcentatopota, for resting 
upon dark surfaces. The localities and dates of the Museum series of 
specimens are as follows : — Felden, Boxmoor, Herts, September 5th, 
1895 (/I. Piffard)\ Lewes, Sussex, June 5th, 1870(6^. H, Verrall)\ 
Torcross, S. Devon, August 25th, 1903, and Porthcawl, Glamorgan- 
shire, S. Wales, May 31st, 1903 {Lieut-Colonel Yerbury), 
Colonel Yerbury contributes the following note : — " In the British 
Isles this seems to be an uncommon insect It has been caught on 
the backs of cattle at Barmouth (Merioneth), Porthcawl (Glamorgan- 
shire), and Torcross (S. Devon). These flies collect in numbers on 
the withers of young cattle, but are, as may be imagined, difficult to 
catch. The writer while catching them on the back of one beast got 
his net hung up on the horns of another, with disastrous consequences to 
the net. This, or a very closely allied species has the same habits in 
Ceylon, and was found in great numbers near TrincomaH,on the backs 
of the village cattle." 

The geographical range of Z. irritans doubtless includes the 
whole of Europe, since it is known to extend from Central 
Scandinavia to Italy, where, according to Rondani, it attacks horses 
as well as cattle. The species has been introduced into the United 
States, where it is stated to have the habit of clustering in masses 
about the base and on the concave side of the horns of cattle, and 
has consequently been termed the " Horn-fly.** First observed on 
cattle in New Jersey and Maryland in the summer and autumn 
of the year 1887, it is said to be now generally distributed 
throughout the United States and Eastern Canada. The Museum 
possesses a specimen from Vernon, British Columbia, where it was 
taken by Miss Ricardo on July 25th, 1902. The species is known to 
American writers by its synonym Hcematobia serrata^ Rob.-Desv. 



The strange-looking flies composing this Family are parasitic 
upon mammals and birds, and are probably descended from 
ancestors belonging to* the Muscidae, which underwent modification 
in bodily structure as a consequence of the adoption of a parasitic 
mode of life. The body in all cases is flattened and homy ; the feet 
are provided with accessory claws to enable the insect to cling to 
the hair or feathers of the host ; and while some of the forms, such 
as the Forest Fly (Plate 31), and Ornithomyia avicularia, Linn. 
(Plate 32) are fully-winged, others show a progressive reduction in 
this respect until in the " Sheep Tick " (Melophagus ovinus^ Linn., 
Plate 34), the wings are wanting altogether. But even in fully- 
winged forms, since the flies are true parasites, the wings, as a rule, 
are made use of merely in order to reach the host, or, in the case of 
the males, in order to find an individual of the opposite sex, and 
thereafter it is only in exceptional circumstances, such as the death 
of the host, or too active pursuit by the human hand, or when taking 
a short flight from one animal to another, that these flies are ever 
seen upon the wing. The proboscis in the Hippoboscidne is curved, 
extremely slender, and protrusible, but is composed of the same 
parts as that of the blood-sucking Muscidae. In appearance it 
presents a decided resemblance to the proboscis of the Tsetse-flies, 
and it also acts in the same way as the latter, its tip being armed 
with sharp chitinous teeth which enable the organ to pierce the skin 
of the host. Another point of resemblance to the Tsetse-flies is to be 
found in the mode of reproduction, which is a further development 
of the process seen in the flies referred to, and has caused the 
Hippoboscidae and certain other families of parasitic Diptera 
belonging to the same group to receive the name Pupipara. In these 
forms, namely, the pregnant female does not lay eggs, but produces 
at each birth a full-grown larva, which assumes the pupal state 
immediately after extrusion. 

In addition to those figured in Plates 31 to 34, the fauna of the 


British Islands includes two other species of Hippoboscidse, 
Stenopteryx hirundinis^ Linn., and Oxypterum pallidum. Leach, found 
respectively on and in the nests of the house martin {Chelidon urbica, 
Linn.), and the swift {Cypaelus apus, Linn.). 

It is doubtful whether an authentic instance exists in which any 
species of Hippoboscidae has sucked human blood under natural 
conditions, though the flies sometimes stray on to human beings 
when their hosts are interfered with. 

HIPPOBOSCA, Linnaeus. 

Hippobosca equina, Linn.— The Forest Fly, 
Plate 31. 

The upper figure shows the resting position. 

As indicated by the English name, the principal home of this 
species in the British Islands is the New Forest, in Hampshire, where 
it may often be seen in clusters like bees, sometimes numbering many 
hundreds, on the ponies and cattle which run wild there. The flies 
chiefly congregate on parts where the skin is thinnest, beneath the 
tail, on the perinaeum, and on the inner surface of the thighs. The 
bite does not seem to cause pain, and animals bred in the Forest take 
no notice of the fly, but strange horses and especially donkeys are 
sometimes driven almost frantic by the irritation caused by a single 
Forest Fly crawling over them. The toothed claws enable the fly to 
cling so tightly to the hair that it is impossible for an animal to 
dislodge it by a brush from its tail, and the quick and somewhat 
crab-like movements of the insect, which when disturbed usually 
moves sideways, tickle the host and are exceedingly irritating to 
sensitive animals. 

Forest flies are to be found from the beginning of May until at least 
the second week in October. In addition to the New Forest the species 


occurs in Dorsetshire, and apparently throughout Wales, since the 
Museum possesses specimens from Glynybedd, Cadoxton juxta-Neath, 
Glamorganshire, S. Wales, October nth, 1898 {Dr, D, Thomas \ on 
cattle), and others from Beddgelert Valley, Carnarvonshire, N. Wales, 
July, 1901 {O, Peter: also on cattle). From Dorsetshire there are speci- 
mens from Corfe Castle, June and July 14th, 1897 (E, R, Bankes\ and 
Bonsley Down, near Blandford, September 25th, 1895 (the late /. C. 
Mcinsel'P ley dell). In the latter neighbourhood the insect proved 
troublesome to the army horses engaged in the Autumn Manoeuvres 
of 1872. 

The Forest Fly occurs throughout Europe and in very many other 
widely distant localities, to some of which, at any rate, it has doubtless 
been carried with horses in recent years. The Museum collection 
includes specimens of the species from, — Algeria ; the Cape of Good 
Hope ; Madeira ; Canary Is. ; St. Michael's, Azores ; Trebizond, 
Turkey in Asia ; Bengal ; Upper Burma ; Celebes ; Fiji ; and New 

ORNITHOMYIA, Latreille. 

Ornithomyia avioiilaria, Linn. 

Plate 32. 

This species, which is a bird-parasite, is, as might be expected 
generally distributed throughout the British Islands. The localities 
of the Museum series of specimens range from the Shetland Islands 
to Dorset, and include S. Wales and Co. Wicklow, Ireland. The birds 
from which the flies were obtained were as follows -.—pheasant, part- 
ridge, red grouse, blackcock, snipe, long-eared owl, barn owl, green 
woodpecker, thrush, blackbird, wheatear, white-throat, red-backed 
shrike, and starling. The flies frequently occur singly, but sometimes 
a male and female, or even as many as three specimens, are found on 
the same bird. If a bird infested by one of these insects be shot, the 
parasite will sometimes take wing and fly with great pertinacity 


round and round the person carrying the bird. Males which have^ 
perhaps, gone astray while seeking a female are occasionally met with ; 
thus at Brockenhurst, in the New Forest, on May 26th, 1 894, a male 
was caught on the wing by Mr. C. O. Waterhouse ; and the Museum 
collection also contains another male, taken by Colonel Yerbury, at 
Porthcawl, Glamorganshire, S. Wales, on July ist, 1903, on a hotel 
window. This species shows great individual variation in size, as 
also in coloration ; freshly caught or living individuals are often quite 

Omithomyia avicularia appears to have been carried by birds all 
over the world ; the Museum possesses specimens from, among other 
localities, Tristan d'Acunha I., in the South Atlantic ; Launceston, 
Tasmania ; and New Zealand. The species also occurs in New South 
Wales, where, as also in Tasmania, it exhibits a remarkable change of 
habit, since it is parasitic on the kangaroos known as wallabies 
{Halmaturus ruficollisy Desm., and H. parryiy Benn). 

LIPOPTENA, Nitzsch. 

Lipoptena oervi, Linn. 

Plate 33, male : Plate 34, fig. i, female. 

This, species is parasitic upon several species of deer, including 
the roe, red, and fallow deer, and also, in Scandinavia, upon the elk 
{Alces alcesy Linn.) ; in Great Britain its chief host is the roe 
(Capreolus capreoliis, Linn.). On emerging from the pupa both sexes 
possess wings, which, in the case of the female at any rate, as soon as 
the insects reach the host appear to break off close to the base, leaving 
stumps as shown in Plate 34, fig. i. Specimens of both sexes found 
upon a roe are usually in this wingless condition, in which they often 
present a superficial resemblance to the '* Sheep Tick " {Melophagus 
ovinuSy Linn. — Plate 34, fig. 2), though they can easily be dis- 
tinguished by the possession of wing-stumps. In the autumn months, 



however, winged males are sometimes met with in woods inhabited 
by roe-deer ; these differ considerably in appearance from the apterous 
males found in company with females among the hair of the host, 
being paler in colour and more slender in the abdomen, while the 
males that have lost their wings are more like the females, and are 
darker in colour with a broader and stouter abdomen. Winged 
individuals of both sexes have been caught flying round a dead roe, 
but the females all shed their wings in dying; the Museum collection 
contains a number of males with wings, but not a single winged 

With two exceptions all the specimens of this species in the 
Museum series were taken on roe deer at Whatcombe, Blandford 
Dorset, between September 19th and October 26th, 1895, and 
presented by the late Mr. J. C. Mansel-Pleydell. Besides these 
there are also a male from the same locality, taken on October 17th, 
1895, on a horse after passing through hazel-bushes in Houghton 
Wood, which is frequented by roe deer (J, C, Mansel-Pleydell) ; and 
another male from Stoke Edith, Herefordshire, caught by Colonel 
Yerbury, on October nth, 1897, on his own neck, after passing 
through Stoke Edith Park, in which there are fallow deer. A 
winged male figured by Curtis (* British Entomology,' 1824) under 
the name Hceinobora pallipes^ is said to have been taken in the 
New Forest, Hants, about the middle of September, 1822, on the 
clothes of a Mr. J. Chant. 

Lipoptena cervi doubtless occurs throughout Europe, and closely 
allied species are found in other parts of the world. In 
February, 1901, a specimen of Z. cervi was taken by Mr. P. S. 
Stammwitz, near Johannesburg, Transvaal, under circumstances 
pointing to the possibility that it had been introduced into South Africa 
with remounts during the South African War. 


MELOPHAGUS, Latreille. 

Helophagas ovinas, Linn. 

The Sheep " Tick," Sheep *' Louse/' or Ked. 
Plate 34» Fig- 2. 

A higher degree of adaptation to a parasitic existence is exhibited 
by this species than by any of the foregoing members of the Family 
to which it belongs, since the wings are always entirely wanting in 
both sexes. This peculiarity, coupled with the general strangeness 
of its appearance, which presents little resemblance to an ordinary fly^ 
and the fact that it passes its whole life-cycle in the wool of the sheep, 
has gained for the insect two of the popular names mentioned above. 
The late Miss Ormerod (* Report of the Observations of Injurious 
Insects and Common Farm Pests, during the year 1895' (London: 
Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., Ltd., 1896), p. 120) states 
that " when seen in the wool " Sheep Ticks " greatly resemble small 
spiders," though, of course, the presence of only three pairs of legs is 
sufficient to show that the creatures must be insects. The Sheep Tick 
does not possess the activity of the Forest Fly, but moves quite slowly 
and quietly through the wool of the host, to which, when not in 
excessive numbers, it may cause little annoyance. Dr. Parry, however 
(quoted by Youatt in *The Mountain Shepherd's Manual' (1862), 
p. 35), says that Melophagus ovinus'' is extremely injurious to sheep, 
by making the animal bite and rub itself, so as not only to hurt the 
fleece, but to break the skin, in consequence of which the fly \Lucilia 
sericata, Mg.] is apt to fix on the wool near the wounded spot and 
there deposit its eggs." 

The Sheep Ticks in the Museum collection were taken during May 
and June, i>., at shearing-time, but Curtis believes that the insect is to 


be found all the year round, since he had received specimens as early 
as March. 

Like the Sheep Bot-fly {CEstrus ovis, Linn.J the Sheep Tick 
has been carried about the world with its host. Recently the Museum 
has received a series of specimens of this species (with pupa-cases) from 
Pecos Cafton, New Mexico, taken and presented by Dr. M. Grabham, 
in June, 1903. 


Ague in Great Britain, disappearance of, not dependent on extinction of mos- 
quitoes, but probably due to several causes, 21. 

Anopheles, a genus of Culicidae : A. bifurcaius (plate 3), distribution of, 19 ; 
A. maculipennis^ the Spotted Gnat (plate 4), widely distributed and blood- 
sucking in Great Britain, 20; A, nigripes {^\zX.^ 2), distribution of, 18; 
sometimes found indoors, 19 ; distribution of ague dependent mainly on 
numerical distribution of Anopheles, 22. 

Atylotus, a genus of Tabanidae : A,fulvus (plate 18), among the rarer of 
British Horse-flies, description of, 44 ; specimens in Museum only from 
Hampshire and Kenmare, 44 ; continental distribution, 44 ; A. rusticus^ 
even rarer than A, fuhms^ distinguished by greyer tint of short hair 
covering body, 45 ; only one modem British example in Museum from 
N.E. Essex, 45. 

Blood-sucking flies among British Diptera, some 74 species found in only 
six families, 12. 

Breeze-flies, popular name sometimes applied to Tabanidae, 31. 

Brimps, popular name in Kent for species of Haematopota, 31. 

Ceratopogon, a genus of Chironomidae : divisions lately introduced by 
Kieffer, 14 (note). 

CHiRONOMiDiE (Midges) : British blood-sucking forms belong to genus 
Ceratopogon ; about 50 indigenous species, only a few of these kno^\^l to 
suck blood, annoyance caused by and description of, 13; C. puiicaris 
(plate I, fig. 2), prevalent in certain localities in England in 1904, figure 
of in resting position, 15 ; distinguished from C, varius^ 16 ; C varius 
(plate I, fig. i), minuteness and range of, 14. 


Chrysops, a genus of Tabanidae : C, caaiiiens (plate 26), striking sexual 
difference in coloration and marking of abdomen, beauty of eyes, 
British specimens in Museum, 53 ; in England, commonest species of 
genus, not plentiful in Scotland, 54; almost silent in approach, thus 
differing from TabanuSy continental specimens in Miiseum, 54 ; 
C. quadrata {yUbXq 27), differences between male and female, 54; rare 
generally in Britain, continental specimens in Museum, 55*; C relicta 
(plate 28), distinguished from C cacutienSy description of, common and 
generally distributed in Great Britain, continental specimens in Museum, 
55 ; C. sepukraliSy rare in British islands, only three specimens in 
Museum, description of, continental distribution, 56. 

Clegs, popular name for species of Tabanidae, 31. 

CocciD.t (scale-insects), distinguished from gall-midges (Diptera), 11. 

CuLEX, a genus of Culicidae : C cantans (plate 6), not very common in 
Great Britain, 24 ; C nemorosus (plate 7), common in England, not seen 
in houses or out-buildings, range of, 25 ; C, pipienSy the Common Gnat, 
(plate 8), common in Great Britain, in houses practically throughout the 
year, 25 ; often found in winter on roofs of cellars, a troublesome blood- 
sucker, geographical range, 26. 

CuLiciD^ (gnats or mosquitoes), twenty-two British species, how distin- 
guished from certain midges, 1 7 ; blood-sucking habit confined to female 
sex in British mosquitoes, 17 ; preliminary stages of development, 17, 18; 
British mosquitoes beside those illustrated, 18. 

CuLicoiDEs, a genus of Chironomidas, revived by Kieffer to include Cerato- 
pogon variusy C. pu Heart's y and other species of Ceratopogon, 14 (note). 

Dark surfaces, predilection of various blood-sucking Diptera {Anopheles^ 
Hamatopotay Lyperosia) for resting thereon, 60, 61. 

Diptera, chief characteristics of, 11 ; fifty-nine families recognised as Brirish 
in VerralFs * List,' 11 ; 2700-3000 British species, 12. 

Dun-flies, popular name for species of Tabanidae, 31. 

"Flies," meaning of term, 11; blood-sucking habit in only six British 
families, 12. 

Gad-flies, popular name frequently applied to Tabanidae, 31. 



Grabhamia, a genus of Culicidae : G. dorsalis (plate 9), most handsome of 
British mosquitoes, characteristics of, found as a rule in the southern 
counties, 26 ; known on the Suffolk coast as the * Norway Mosquito,* 
severity and virulence of its bite, 27. 

H^MATOBiA, a genus of Muscidae : H, stimulans (plate 2iZy %• i) iri habits, 
time of occurrence, and extent of distribution in British Isles, similar to 
Stomoxys calciirans^ but head much smaller and palpi more prominent, 
59, 60 ; wide range of distribution in British Isles ; no specimen in. 
Museum from other localities, 60. 

HiEMATOPOTA, a genus of Tabanidse : individuals sometimes very abundant, 
36 ; H. crasstcornis (plate 1 2) closely resembles H. plttvialtSy but darker, 
35, varying size of, common in many localities, less troublesome in 
Scotland, 36; H, italica^ distinguished by pale femora, and longer 
antennae, rarer and more local than other indigenous species, 36, doubt- 
fully common in Austria, 37 ; H, pluvialis (plate 11), very common and 
generally distributed, 35. 

Harvest-bug {Leptus autumnalis\ figure of; swellings caused by, apt to be 
mistaken for bites of midges or of gnats, 16. 

HiPPOBOSCA, a genus of Hippoboscidae : H, equina^ the Forest Fly (plate 31), 
found principally in the New Forest, clustering like bees on the ponies 
and cattle, bite not painful, but the movements of the insect often irritate 
animals, 63 ; found also in Dorsetshire and Wales, occurs throughout 
Euroi)e and in many other distant localities, 64. 

HiPPOBOsciDiE, a family of Diptera, parasitic upon mammals and birds, some 
fully winged, others wingless ; resemblance to tsetse-flies in proboscis and 
mode of reproduction, 62 ; two species found on and in the nests of the 
house-martin and swift; doubtful whether any species sucks human 
blood, 63. 

* Horn-flV,' name given in United States to Lyperosia irritansy also termed 
Hcematobia serrata^ 61. 

Horse-flies, popular name for Tabanidae, 31. 

Ked, popular name for Melophagus ovinuSy 67. 

Leptus autumnalis (harvest-bug), figure of; sw^ellings caused by, apt to be 
mistaken for bites of midges or of gnats, 16. 

LiPOPTENA, a genus of Hippoboscidse : Z. r^r/r/ (plates ^^ and 34) parasitic on 
several species of deer, in Great Britain chiefly on the roe, both sexes 
sometimes wingless, 65 ; difi*erences between winged and wingless males ; 
nearly all specimens in Museum from roe deer in Dorset; occurs 
throughout Europe, one specimen found in Transvaal, 66. 

LvPEROSiA, a genus of Muscidac : Z. irritans (plate 30, fig. 2) the smallest of 
native blood-sucking Muscidx, a pest of cattle, especially of black 
animals, does not attack human beings, 60 ; uncommon in British Isles : 
closely allied species found in Ceylon ; Z. irritans generally distributed 
throughout Europe, the United States and Eastern Canada ; in the 
U.S.A. termed the ' Horn-fly,' from habit of clustering about base of 
horns ; also known as Hamatobia serrata : in Italy attacks horses as 
well as cattle, 61. 

Melophagus, a genus of Hippoboscidae : M. ovinus^ the sheep * tick,' sheep 
Mouse' or *ked' (plate 34, fig. 2), wings completely wanting in both 
sexes ; whole life-cycle passed in wool of sheep ; as thus seen the insects 
greatly resemble small spiders ; may injure sheep by causing them to 
bite and rub themselves, thus producing a wound which attracts fly 
{Lucilia sericata\ 67 ; found at all seasons, and recently met with in New 
Mexico, 68. 

MusciD.K, a family of Diptera, containing three British blood-sucking species, 
nearly allied to common house-fly and to African tsetse- flies. Blood- 
sucking habit exceptional and confined to very few genera and species, 
but common to both sexes, 57. Blood-sucking Muscidae (tsetse-flies 
excepted) breed in dung, eggs developing into white maggots, 57. 

* Norway Mosc^riTO,' term applied at Aldeburgh to Grabhamia dorsalis^ 27. 

NuTTALL, Cobbett, and Strange ways- Pigg on Anopheles and ague in Great 
Britain, 21, 22. 

Ornithomvia, a genus of Hippoboscidx : O.avica/aria (plate 32) distributed 
throughout British islands, infesting various birds, 64 ; variations in size 
and coloration ; carried by birds all over the worid ; in New South 
AN'ales and Tasmania jKirasitic on wallabies, 65. 

* Sheep tick,' * sheep louse' or * kcd,* terms applied to Mehphai^s avinus, 



SiMULiDiE, a family of Diptera consisting of the single genus Simulium^ 
universally distributed, 28; often causes great losses among various 
animals, especially in United States and Hungary ; description and pre- 
liminary stages, 28 ; S. hirtipts^ a biting pest in Scotland, 30 ; S, reptans 
(plate 10), a northern species, description of, 29 ; distribution of, 30. 

Spotted Gnat (plate 4), otherwise known as Anopheles macuKpennis^ 20. 

Stomoxys, a genus of Muscidae : S. calcitrans (plate 29) similar in size to 
house-fly, but distinguished by proboscis, common in Great Britain, 
plagues both men and cattle, 58; its bite and that of Hcematobia 
stimulans more painful to some persons than that of any other fly; 
cattle and horses severely bitten in Northumberland in 1865, 59 ; geo- 
graphical range very wide, 59. 

Stouts, popular name for species of Tabanidae, 31. 

TABANiDiE (Horse-flies, Breeze-flies, Dun-flies, Clegs, and Stouts, frequently 
called Gad-flies), a family of Diptera, most formidable in appearance of 
all blood-sucking flies ; world-wide distribution, twenty-two recognised 
species in Great Britain, general appearance, 31 ; common in summer in 
coimtry places, 32 ; large as well as small animals severely aflected in 
many countries, 33 ; petroleum used in Russia for destruction, 33 ; 
description of eggs and larvae, latter carnivorous; Tabanidae some- 
times preyed upon by robber-flies, 34. 

Tabanus, a genus of Tabanidae: T. autumnalis (plates 21 and 22), striking 
sexual difference in marking and coloration of abdomen, 48 ; in South 
of England one of commonest species of the genus, continental dis- 
tribution, 48; T. bovinus (plate 19), with T, sudeticus the bulkiest of all 
British Diptera, 45 ; distinguished from T, sudeticus^ 45, 46 ; British 
specimens in Museum all from Southern counties, continental specimens, 
habits, 46 ; T, bromius (plate 23), common in South of England, easily 
recognised, dimensions of, British specimens in Museum, 49 ; distri- 
bution throughout Europe, 50 ; 71 cordiger (plate 25), usually rare, but 
plentiful in Abemethy Forest, Inverness-shire, 51; continental distri- 
bution, 52 ; T'. glaucopis, no British examples in Museum, description of, 
continental specimens, 52 ; T. macuUcomis (plate 24), distinguishing 
characters of, smallest of the British species of T'., 50 ; very common in 
South of England, British and continental specimens in Museum, 51 ; 


T, sudeticus (plate 20), localities and dates of British specimens in 
Museum, 47 ; found throughout Europe, habits, 48. 

Theobaldia, a genus of Culicidae: 71 annulata (plate 5), one of the largest of 
mosquitoes, common in Great Britain at all seasons, hibernates in sheds, 
cellars, etc., severe effects of bite of, 23 ; can subsist on a vegetable diet, 
at Weston-super-Mare sometimes spoken of as the ** Wood Gnat," 23, 24. 

Therioplectes, a genus of Tabanidae : Th. borealis^ description of, very 
few specimens in Museum, 38, 39 ; geographical distribution, 39 ; 
Th, luridus (plate 15), darker than Th, montanuSy description of, 40; 
distribution of, in the British Islands, apparently a northern species, 41 ; 
Th, means (plate 13), description of, l^s entirely black, thus distinguished 
from bisignatus form of Th, tropicus^ 37 ; very rare in Great Britain, 
no modem British specimens in Museum, 38 ; Th, montanus (plate 14), 
considerable difference between sexes, 39 ; essentially a Scotch and 
Irish species, 39 ; distribution in Europe, 40 ; Th, solstitialis (plate 17), 
most brightly coloured of the larger British Tabanidae, very common, and 
generally distributed in Great Britain, 43 ; continental distribution, 43 ; 
Th. tropicus (form bisignatus^ plate 16), the common British form of the 
female of this species, description of, 41, resembles 77i, micans^ British 
specimens in Museum only from England, continental specimens, 42. 

Wood Gnat, popular name sometimes given at Weston-super-Mare to 
Theobaldia annulata^ 24. 



Fig. I. Ceratopogon varius (Female) 

Fig. 2. Ceratopogon pulicaris (Female) 


Anopheles nigripes (Female) 


Anopheles bifurcatus (Female) 




Anopheles maculipennis (Female) 


Theobaldia annulata (Female) 


Culex cantans (Female) 


Culex nemorosus (Female) 


Culex pipiens (Female) 


Grabhamia dorsalis (Female) 



I -1 










Fig. I. Haematopota pluvialis (Male) 

Fig. 2. Haematopota pluvialis (F'emale) 


•M ;* 

Haematopota crassicornis (Female) 




























































Tabanus sudeticus (Female) 


















































Fig. I. Chrysops caecutiens (Male) 

Fig. 2. Chrysops caecutiens (Female) 




Chrysops quadrata (Female) 


Chrysops relicta (Female) 


Stomoxys calcitrans (Female) 


Fig. I, Haematobia stimulans (Female) 

Fig. 2. Lyperosia irritans (Female) 

rLA 1 d o\ 

Hippobosca equina (Female) 













Stomoxys calcitrans (Female) 


Fig. I, Haematobia stimulans (Female) 

Fig. 2. Lyperosia irritans (Female) 



Hippobosca equina (Female) 















Fig. I. Lipoptena cervi (Female) 

Fig. 2. Melophagus ovinus (Female)